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Peer review
What do peer reviews achieve?
· Allocation of funding: public bodies can peer review studies to gather whether or
not they will be worthwhile
· Publication of research in scientific journals and books: this gives scientists the
opportunity to share the results of their research. Peer review process can be used
to eliminate incorrect or faulty date entering the public domain.
· Assessing the research rating of university departments: all university
departments are expected to conduct research and this is assessed in terms of
quality future funding. Good research = better funding.…read more

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What problems occur with peer
reviews?
· Unachievable ideal: is not always possible to find an expert to
review a research proposal. Poor research could therefore be
passed on.
· Anonymity: gives people the chance to `settle old scores' or bury
rival research.
· Publication bias: researchers may publish something if it will
prove their own research. Also, positive results tend to be
published more often.
· Preserving the status quo: peer review has a preference for data
that already follows what other current theories have found
rather than dissenting. Peer review therefore can make the pace
of development slower.…read more

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Specific research methods used:
1. Experimental
2. Observations
3. Correlational analysis
4. Surveys
5. Interviews
6. Case studies
7. Pilot studies…read more

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1. EXPERIMENTAL
Lab experiment ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES
within an artificial environment where the · Specialised · Low ecological
researcher has full control over the equipment validity
variables · Cause and effect · Demand
· Easy to replicate characteristics
Field experiment ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES
is within a more natural environment but · Higher ecological · Control not
researcher has some control. validity always maintained
· Lower demand · Equipment not
characteristics practical
Natural experiment ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES
real life environment where experimenter · No/few demand · Low control
has no control. characteristics · Cannot establish
cause and effect
· Time consuming…read more

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2. OBSERVATIONAL
CONTROLLED ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES
Is where the conditions are contrived by · Easy to replicate · Low ecological
the researcher. This type of observation · Easy to analyse validity
may be carried out in a laboratory type · Researcher bias
situation. · Demand charac.
NATURALISTIC ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES
Is when observation is within the · Higher ecological · Low validity
participants natural environment. validity · Too specific
· Qualitative data
PARTICIPANT ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES
Observer is involved with the participants · Qualitative date · Costly
he/she observes. · Very in-depth · Hard to arrange ­
· First hand time consuming
experience. · Low validity
NON-PARTICIPANT ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES
Observer is NOT involved with the · Not relying on · Ethical issues
participants he/she observes. memory…read more

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