Psychology - Paper 1

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Psychology ­ Paper 1
Sex and Gender:
Key Concepts:
Sex ­ The biological aspects of a person that make them male or female.
Gender ­ The psychological term that tell us if a person is masculine, feminine or
androgynous.
Masculinity ­ A gender term associated with male traits/role like aggression
and dominance.
Femininity ­ A gender term associated the female traits/role like kindness and
sensitive.
Androgyny ­ A gender term where the person shows high levels of masculine and
feminine traits.
Core Theory: Biological Theory
Chromosomes determine the sex of a baby, a man's sperm will have one
chromosome either X or Y and the woman's will always have a X chromosome. Y is
the dominant gene so XX will be female, and XY will be male.
Gonads develop into testes or ovaries depending on X or Y genes, it is these
initial gonads that determine how a baby is treated from birth.
Hormones develop the gonads into testes or ovaries; Testosterone and
oestrogen. Girls and boys are treated differently from birth with boys being
given more varied stimulation than girls.
Puberty triggers further changes in hormone levels, these hormones have a
dramatic effect on the body physically and emotionally.
Hormone imbalances can affect the development of a child, girls with high levels
of testosterone may exhibit high levels of masculine appearance and behaviour
and Men with high oestrogen levels may exhibit loss of muscle and strength and
even the development of breasts.
Basic evolutionary differences in human behaviour:
If biological appearance was the only thing affecting human behaviour then
gender roles would have remained constant over time; however gender roles
have gradually evolved in response to the change in environment over time.
When we lived as hunter gatherers men used their strength to hunt food and
women stayed at home and looked after children.
Women are generally smaller and weaker than men so these roles made sense,
men developed good navigational skills which made them effective hunters and
women became good at recognising landmarks so they could gather food closer
to home. Woman's verbal skills allow them to defend them self through
manipulation and arguments and men through physical strength.
Today thanks to the use of contraception women are more independent and
have more equal opportunities to men. Physically strong men are no longer seen as
powerful and women no longer as weak. Gender roles have changed over time and men

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How we behave is now a matter of
choice although biology still has alot to do with it.
Critisms of the Biological Theory:
Gender roles have changed over time if biological sex was the only factor in
gender development they would have stayed constant.
Males and Females behave differently in different cultures and take on
different roles, if biology was the only factor they would be the same
throughout the world.…read more

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Core Study: Diamond and Sigmundson
Bruce had his penis removed as a child and was raised as a girl called Brenda.
Brenda felt fine until she reached puberty when she felt like a man trapped in a
girls body, she felt more masculine than feminine and struggled with bullying
and issues.
She eventually had a sex change and became a man and felt in harmony with his
body at last.…read more

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Displacement: Forgetting information from STM information is knocked out of
storage by new information.
Decay: The fading of information over time until it is forgotten, can happen in
seconds from our STM, can happen in our LTM if we don't use it we can lose it!
Core Theory: Multi-Store Model
A model of memory is a representation based on the information available, the
model provides us with information about how memory works, models change
over time as new evidence comes forward.…read more

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The MSM is critised for over emphasising the role of Rehearsal, LOP suggests
that we remember things in our LTM memory because they have a specific
meaning to us not rehearsal.
It suggests there are different levels of processing in memory from shallow to
deep.
o Shallow Processing- not thinking about its meaning, e.g. reading a page of
a book and not knowing what it said. You are less likely to remember
these things.…read more

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LTM, and the last few
were still in the STM.
o The middle commercials were not remembered well because there was
not enough room to keep them in the STM and there was not enough time
to rehearse them into the LTM.
o In the delayed recall condition there was a primacy effect by no recency
effect, as the written task had prevented pp's keeping the last ones in
the STM.…read more

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Attachment
An attachment is a emotional bond between two people.
Key Concepts:
Separation Protest- When a child shows upset and distress on separation from
the attachment figure.
Stranger Anxiety- When the child shows anxiety and stress when in the
presence of strangers.
Secure Attachment- When a child and caregiver are secure with each other and
like interacting with each other.
Insecure-Avoidant Attachment-When the child is independent of the mother,
there is the possibility they don't trust the mother.…read more

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Critisms:
Does not explain how some people with poor attachments to their parents go on
to have good relationships with other people.
Does not take into account individual differences with the temperament of the
baby.
Children can form main attachments with more than one person; grandmother,
father ect and it does not explain this.
Many children are not damaged by deprivation (when a child has developed an
attachment but is then separated from the attachment figure).
Experiences of all ages have an impact.…read more

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The questionnaire also measured attitudes to people's most important romantic
relationship using multi-choice questions.
1200 replies to the `love quiz' questionnaire were sent in.
Approximately half of these were analysed.…read more

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Application Of Research:
Care Of Children:
Nurseries:
Research has shown that if a nursery provides good day care the experience is
not harmful to the child and may be beneficial.
Staff should be well qualified, low staff turnover to allow relationships
between staff and children to develop and provide consistency.
High caregiver-to child ratio
Lots of language and play through conversations games and toys.
Good routines and consistent behaviour management are vital.
Hospitals:
Parents have extended visiting hours when their child is in hospital.…read more

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