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Psychology ­ Paper 1

Sex and Gender:
Key Concepts:

Sex ­ The biological aspects of a person that make them male or female.
Gender ­ The psychological term that tell us if a person is masculine, feminine or
Masculinity ­ A gender term associated with male traits/role like aggression…

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and women no longer have clearly defined roles. How we behave is now a matter of
choice although biology still has alot to do with it.

Critisms of the Biological Theory:

Gender roles have changed over time if biological sex was the only factor in
gender development they would have…

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Core Study: Diamond and Sigmundson

Bruce had his penis removed as a child and was raised as a girl called Brenda.
Brenda felt fine until she reached puberty when she felt like a man trapped in a
girls body, she felt more masculine than feminine and struggled with bullying

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Displacement: Forgetting information from STM information is knocked out of
storage by new information.
Decay: The fading of information over time until it is forgotten, can happen in
seconds from our STM, can happen in our LTM if we don't use it we can lose it!

Core Theory: Multi-Store Model…

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The MSM is critised for over emphasising the role of Rehearsal, LOP suggests
that we remember things in our LTM memory because they have a specific
meaning to us not rehearsal.
It suggests there are different levels of processing in memory from shallow to
o Shallow Processing- not thinking…

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was time to rehearse them and pass them into the LTM, and the last few
were still in the STM.
o The middle commercials were not remembered well because there was
not enough room to keep them in the STM and there was not enough time
to rehearse them into…

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An attachment is a emotional bond between two people.

Key Concepts:

Separation Protest- When a child shows upset and distress on separation from
the attachment figure.
Stranger Anxiety- When the child shows anxiety and stress when in the
presence of strangers.
Secure Attachment- When a child and caregiver are…

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Does not explain how some people with poor attachments to their parents go on
to have good relationships with other people.
Does not take into account individual differences with the temperament of the
Children can form main attachments with more than one person; grandmother,
father ect and it…

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The questionnaire also measured attitudes to people's most important romantic
relationship using multi-choice questions.
1200 replies to the `love quiz' questionnaire were sent in.
Approximately half of these were analysed.

Anxious Avoidant
o feared intimacy in romantic relationships
o were jealous of romantic partners
o were more likely to…

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Application Of Research:

Care Of Children:


Research has shown that if a nursery provides good day care the experience is
not harmful to the child and may be beneficial.
Staff should be well qualified, low staff turnover to allow relationships
between staff and children to develop and provide consistency.…


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