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Duration: 20 Seconds
Peterson & Peterson (1959)
Encoding: Visually then Acoustically
Conrad (1964)
Capacity: 7 (±2)
Miller (1956)

Duration: Potentially Unlimited
Bahrick et al (1975)
Encoding: Mainly Semantic
Baddeley (1966)
Capacity: Potentially Unlimited

Atkinson and Shriffrin (1968)
Sensory Memory
Stores = Static = Only…

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can use any of the senses
Phonological Loop (PL)
Duration = 2 seconds
Limited Capacity
Temporary Storage
Phonological Store (inner ear) (PS)
Articulatory Control System (inner voice) (AC)
Visuo-Spatial Sketchpad (VSS)
Duration = 2 seconds
Limited Capacity
Temporary Storage
Visual and Spatial Memory
Episodic Buffer (EB)
General Store
Integrates info…

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real-life robbery
accurate recall (despite misleading questions)

Factors that influence EWT
Misleading Information
Loftus and Palmer
broken glass
misleading questions affect storage
Loftus et al
Stop or Yield (give way) sign
misleading info affects storage
Bekerian and Bowers
repeated Stop or Yield experiment
however unlike Loftus slides of event were…

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Fisher and Geiselman (1992)

1) Report Everything (RE)
2) Original Context Reinstatement (CR)
3) Change Order (CO) (ie starting from the end of event and working
4) Change Perspective (CP) (ie What would other witnesses have seen?)

Evaluation of Cognitive Interview
Köhnken et al
meta-analysis 34% increase in correct…


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