Psychology aqa a unit 2 - Stress

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PAS system
SAM system
- Body's `'Stress system''
- When the sns is activated, the SAM - Controls cortisol levels
system alerts the animal through - Involves hypothalamus, pituitary gland and
release of adrenaline adrenal cortex, all help body to deal with
- Regulated by the SNS and adrenal chronic stressors.
The Body's
Adrenal Medulla Adrenal Cortex
- Neurons of the sns travel to the medulla. - Releases cortisol.
- When activated, releases adrenaline into to stress - Responsible for stress effects in body.
blood stream. - Prolonged release of ACTH leads to adrenal
- Adrenaline boosts supply of oxygen, cortex increasing its size.
suppresses non emergency responses. - Long term ACTH deficiency leads to it
shrinking .
SNS Pituitary gland
- Neurones from SNS travel to every organ - CRF causes gland to secrete ACTH.
and gland within body. - From the pituitary, ACTH transported into
- Prepares body for action under threat bloodstream.
- Responses include raise in heart rate - Transported from bloodstream to target site in
- Noradrenaline is the neurotransmitter adrenal glands.
released by the SNS to activate these

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Stress Stress / Illness
Immune system: Kiecolt Glaser.
1984- acute stressors
- Natural experiment, to see if CHD
short term stressors have - Lazarus suggested that:
effect on the immune system. Sheps et al.
1. Health is affected by many different factors
- Blood samples of medical including genetic influences, lifestyle etc... As - First study large enough to
students were taken one
a result, there may be little variance that can show that stress can be fatal for
month before their exams.…read more

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Kivmaki et al- Meta
Sources of Stress
Stress analysis:
Found that after a
Life changes: Rahe study of 14 studies
Individual differences: the SRRS ignores looking at risks of
Marmot: Workplace Stress
SRRS. the fact that life changes will have
different impacts on different people. - Investigated job strain model of.
CHD, in association
Based on 43 life events.
Workplace stress. with work stress.…read more

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Personality Type
Type A:
Hardy Personality:
Person who needs to achieve more in less time.
Friedman and Rosenman Believed the Type A personality Kobasa et al proposed that some people are more psychologically `'hardy'' than
has: competitiveness, impatience and aggressiveness. others. The Hardy personality includes:
These characteristics would lead to raised blood pressure - Control- hardy people see themselves in control.
and stress hormones. - Commitment- involved with the world, have a sense of purpose.
Development of CHD.…read more

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Treatments: Drugs
Benzodiazepines (BZs) Evaluation:
- GABA is a neurotransmitter that is the body's natural form of - Ease of use:
anxiety relief. - Using drugs for stress means that the therapy requires
- BZs enhance the action of GABA by binding to special sites in little effort from the user.
the GABA receptor and boosting the actions of GABA. - The person only has to take the pills.…read more

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Psychological Treatments
Meichenbaum: SIT - Effectiveness:
- Meichenbaum compared SIT to SD and found that SIT
1. Conceptualisation phase: The therapist and client was better because it helped clients deal with non
establish a relationship, e.g. the client is taught to treated phobias also.
perceive threats as problems to be solved. - Shows that SIT can inoculate against future stressors
also, as well as helping with current situations.
Preparation for future stressors:
2. Skills Acquisition Phase: Coping skills are taught.…read more


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