Psychology aqa a unit 2 - abnormality

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Deviation from Social Norms Deviation from Ideal mental health
Definitions of
Behaviour considered anti- Jahoda pointed out that we define
social. physical illness by the absence of
People who don't follow the physical health.
codes of society are socially FFA E.g. normal blood pressure, skin
deviant. colour.
Not being able to cope.
Example of a social norm is The absence of these suggests
E.g. if you are depressed, and you
politeness. illness.
can't cope with it.
In the past homosexuality was Marie Jahoda identified six
The disorder doesn't let you go
a socially deviant behaviour, categories that could define health:
about day to day living.
but not now. Self attitudes- high self esteem.
Interferes with things, e.g. eating
Personal growth-achieving
Susceptible to abuse: and going to work.
What was acceptable 50 years
Integration-coping in situations.
ago might not be acceptable Who judges? Patient might be Autonomy- independent.
today. comfortable when their behaviour is Mastery of environment- ability to
Excluding nonconformists or dysfunctional. function.
political dissenters. Some behaviour may be adaptive,
Deviance is hard to measure such as depression elicits help from Who can actually achieve all this
because it is related to context others. criteria?
and degree. Cultural relativism- what is Therefore most people would be
Cultural relativism: considered `'adequate'' differs from considered abnormal under these
Deviation definitions include culture to culture. criteria.
culture bound syndromes. So the FFA definition might result in Mental illnesses do not always have
Doesn't really acknowledge different diagnoses when applied physical causes.
cultural differences. across cultures. Cultural relativism- Jahoda's criteria
reflect individualist cultures only.

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Biological ECT
Approach and
Cause: Used for severe depression
Assumes that all mental Unconscious, relaxed.
disorders are related to Patient given 0.6 amps for ½
Drugs seconds.
some change in the body.
These changes are due to: 3-15 treatments of ECT.
Antipsychotic drugs block
genes, biochemistry, dopamine, dopamine is linked to Unilateral or bilateral.
neuroanatomy and viral schizophrenia. Not clear why ECT works; there is
infection. Antidepressant drugs- depression some question to its functioning.…read more

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Treatment: Free association:
Psychodynamic +
Individuals abnormal behaviour
Patient expresses thoughts as they Treatments
determined by underlying psychological
conflicts of which they aren't aware of,
e.g. repressed memories. Freud believed the value of free
association is that these associations are
Freud proposed that psychological
causes were the reasons for illness.
determined by unconscious factors Freud didn't
which analysis tries to uncover. appreciate the
Unresolved conflicts between Id,
This procedure reveals areas of conflict differences between
superego result in ego defences, e.g.…read more

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Causes: Behavioural and
All behaviour is learned. treatments
Maladaptive behaviours are acquired
in the same way.
Strict behaviourists believe only
behaviour is important. Treatment-SD:
Classical conditioning- learning as a Gradual exposure to the feared
result of association. stimulus.
Operating conditioning ­ learning SD is based on counter conditioning.
through consequences. Steps:
Learning environments reinforce Learn relaxation.
problematic behaviours, e.g. avoidant Construct desensitisation hierarchy.
behaviour lowers anxiety and is Visualise each event while relaxing.
Work through hierarchy.
Eventually master the fear.…read more

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Causes: Treatment: REBT:
Problems arise in the way an individual Rational emotive behavioural therapy.
thinks. Focuses on self defeating beliefs, patient
Ellis- ABC model (activating, belief, encouraged to dispute these beliefs.
consequence) Empirical disputing: self defeating beliefs may
Rational beliefs -> healthy consequences. not be consistent with reality, e.g. `'where is the
Irrational beliefs -> unhealthy emotions.…read more


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