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Biological explanation of gender development

A01: There are 23 pairs of chromosomes in every cell of the body containing genetic codes that
determine the physical and behavioural characteristics of a person. One of these pairs is the sex
chromosome, which determines the biological sex of an individual. The key idea…

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usefulness of the study. This also means that we cannot be sure that biological sex is the primary factor
in gender development for everybody. Some people may be susceptible to social influences and some
may be happy with whatever gender they are raised as, therefore other factors should be considered.…

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mainly because they helped or enhanced men and women perform particular roles in the past.
Therefore, gender differences are more a product of biological inheritance rather than socialisation.

A01: One evolutionary explanation is division of labour (DOL), whereby men were assigned the role of
hunters, and women completed domestic work,…

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order to attract a mate.
Furthermore, Buss's study is highly diverse in terms of religion, culture and ethnicity. This makes findings
more generalisable as they are representative of a wider population. This means the explanation of
mate choice is applicable to many different cultures, further strenghtening the explanation...

A02: Methodological…

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eg girls=dolls, boys=squeaky hammer. This suggests that the moment a child is labelled girl or boy they
are percieved and treated differently.

A02: Bradley et al: case study of genetic male whose penis was accidently damaged at a young age-
reassighnement surgery + nurtured as a girl. He exhibited some…

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A01: Biosocial theory Money and Erhardt
A02: Smith and Lloyd
A02: Bradley et al
A01: Social role theory Eagly and Wood
A02: Gender Empowerment measure (E+W)
A02: Luxen(2000)
A03: Social constructionist
A03: interaction nature/nurture

Gender Dysphoria - experience of feeling uncomfortable with the gender assigned at birth
A01: Mental…

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A02: Weakness/ Chung et al: noted that difference in sizes of BSTc's do not develop until adulthood,
whereas majority of transsexuals reported having feelings of GID from early childhood. This suggests
that size of BSTc cannot be a cause of GID, but can perhaps be and effect.

A02: Strength/ Rametti…

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label themselves and others girl or boy based on outward appearance only. They do not understand that
gender is stable throughout life.
Second stage// Gender stability which offurs between 3-4 years of age. Children learn that gender is
stable and won't change, however can still be misled by superficial changes…

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that psychological factors. For example, Kohlbergs GCT cannot explain the case study of David Reimer.
This suggests that there are other factors involved, therefore an interactionist approach should be
considered when explaining gender development.

A01: Kohblergs gender consisteny theory// GL,GS,GC
A02: Thompson (GL)
A02: Slaby and Frey (GS)
A02: Ruble…

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As there is much research supporting the view that gender schemas develop at around 2 years old, we
can argue the theory is high in external reliability. This is because results are consistenly similar in
suggesting that gender schemas develop at a young age = this means results are less…


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