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Psychology unit 4 schizophrenia
Psychological therapies: CBT
CBT is split into 2 parts; behavioural and cognitive. The behavioural part focuses
on feelings like anxiety caused by delusional thoughts. Breathing techniques are
used to help the patient relax and number strategies such as rating how anxious
they are on a scale of 1-10 can give the patient a sense of control over their
emotions. The cognitive part focuses on thoughts. Empirical challenges are used to
get the patent to question whether there is any evidence to support their thoughts.
Logical challenges question the logic of the patients thoughts or if they make
sense. Pragmatic challenges ask how those thoughts help the patient. Also
distractions are used to try and eliminate the delusional thoughts.
Tarrier used 3 groups of patients: those on drugs, those with drugs and stress
management and those on supportive counselling. Stress management had 20
sessions over 10 weeks. Found that those on drugs and stress management had a
50% reduction in psychotic experiences. Also found that 0% on drugs were free
from all positive symptoms compared to 15% on drugs and stress management and
7% on counselling. 1 year later drugs and stress management was still the most
effective, however 2 years later there was no difference between drugs, stress
management and counselling. This shows that CBT is effective but we can't be sure
of what effect the drugs had.
Drury found that CBT leads to a 25-50% reduction in positive symptoms and a
reduction in patient recovery time when used with drugs.
Kuipers found that CBT is more effective when used with drugs as patient
satisfaction increased and dropout rates fell.
CBT is usually used with drugs so we can't be sure the improvements in
effectiveness are due to CBT alone.
Side effects very few side effects, although the challenges could cause anxiety
as you are telling someone their thoughts are wrong.
/ Time consuming more time consuming than antipsychotics but less than ECT
Doesn't work for all patients it is better for younger patients and those with
less extreme symptoms