Psychodynamic Explanation for Mood Disorders ESSAY PLAN

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The Psychodynamic Explanation for Mood Disorders
The Oral stage: > The first stage of psychosexual development, occurring between 018
> Freud stated that over or under gratification from the parent during this
time, would lead to fixation (an unconscious preoccupation with a stage
that leads to problems in adulthood), resulting in an overly dependent
personality type. This, he believed could then cause depression due to
individual's fixation meaning that they are unable to properly deal with
Loss: > Freud believed that the way in which someone dealt with loss in childhood would
then set the scene for how he/she would deal with similar experiences in
> He classed loss as either being Symbolic > the belief that you have been deserted
a mother leaving their child at nursery or going away for period of time, OR Real>
losing a significant person through death or abandonment
> INTROJECTION following loss, the child experiences feelings of anger and guilt
towards the lost loved one, Freud stated that these feelings cannot be openly
expressed and so are instead turned inwards resulting in selfblame and self
punishment, this is introjections
> A period of mourning should then follow introjections where the child
remembers the loved one and separation is made, HOWEVER due to the child
being orally fixated, their overly dependent personality means that this is not
achieved and so the feelings of anger and self blame continue to be turned
leading to symptoms of Depression (e.g. the belief that no one loves you)
Support: > John Bowlby Developed the attachment theory which was the idea that
depression was more likely if the child was deprived of love and
warmth from a mother figure in the early years
Found that if a child was separated from its mother before the
of 6, they would experience anaclytic depression (an
and anxiety to explore one's environment)
This supports Freud by providing evidence of an individual's
years influencing depression in childhood
> Nietzel and Harris Found evidence that some depressed people are high in
Supports Freud highlighting the effects of an overly
dependent personality in depression, however due to it
only being found in `some' people this suggests there are
other influential factors such as genetics which the

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Klein et al Identified a number of personality traits commonly found in
depressed people, including: high dependency on others,
perfectionism, low selfesteem and an inability to openly express
This is similar to what was described in the theory, for example, an
inability to openly express anger supports introjection
Evaluation: > Weaknesses Introjection> depressed individuals often openly express
rather than turning it inwards towards the self
Empirical support> the main research method used by the
psychodynamic approach is self report of
children which can…read more

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