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Classical Conditioning ­ Developed by Ivan Pavlov and is when learning is developed by association
with natural response

Unconditioned stimulus ­ Usual stimulus which brings natural reflect (e.g. food makes salivation)

Unconditioned response - The natural occurring reflex (e.g. salivation in response to food)


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Secondary reinforcers ­ money, tokens, career success and status; not in themselves rewarding but a
natural stimulus linked to primary reinforcers


Vicarious reinforcement ­ when the observer learns that a model's behavior has been reinforced or
rewarded and increases the likelihood that the observer will imitate the…

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Cognitive neuropsychology ­ studies cognitive processes in people who have suffered different types
of brain damage (Paul Broca used this to discover that a particular part of the brain was responsible for
speech production)

Cognitive science ­ Theories and theoretical development, a debate in cognitive science is about…

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Preconscious ­ thoughts that are capable of becoming conscious, bat at any one time are not.
Represents most of what we refer to as stored in long-term memory e.g. home address

Psychosexual stages ­ the four stages Freud claimed our development took place through; oral, anal,
phallic and genital


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Suppression ­ the conscious attempt to forget or not to think about certain things

Reaction formation ­ behaving in ways opposite to unconscious impulses, feelings e.g. being nice to
someone you don't like

Displacement ­ transferring impulses and feelings onto an originally neutral or innocent target e.g.
scapegoating Jews


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Ideal self ­ what a person aspires to be, together with the morals and values which guide thought and
behavior towards other people

Incongruence ­ when there is a significant difference between a person's self concept (based on
experience) and a person's ideal self. It is a state of discomfort…


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