PSYB1: Psychology (B) Unit 1 - Key approach vocab sheets

Vocab on some of the approaches;

-behaviourism

-SLT

-Cognitive 

-Psychodynamic

-Humanistic

(Will update if I add more)

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  • Created by: Rebecca
  • Created on: 20-05-13 16:21
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KEYWORDS FOR PYSB1
BEHAVIOURIST APPROACH
Classical Conditioning ­ Developed by Ivan Pavlov and is when learning is developed by association
with natural response
Unconditioned stimulus ­ Usual stimulus which brings natural reflect (e.g. food makes salivation)
Unconditioned response - The natural occurring reflex (e.g. salivation in response to food)
Conditioned stimulus ­ New stimulus conditioned to provoke the unconditioned response through
pairing with unconditioned stimulus (e.g. bell which is paired with food)
Conditioned response ­ when the unconditioned response is now successfully paired with the
conditioned stimulus (e.g. salivation at the sound of bell)
Extinguished ­ A behavior is extinguished if the conditioned stimulus is repeatedly used without pairing
it with the unconditioned stimulus
Stimulus generalization ­ variations similar to the conditioned stimulus which still bring about the
conditioned response (e.g. a deeper bell is used but still produces salivation)
Stimulus discrimination ­ when the stimulus is changed too much from original conditioned stimulus
and the conditioned response stops (e.g. using a pizza instead of a bell)
Spontaneous recovery ­ after conditioned response has been extinguished, a spontaneous recovery
may occur and the conditioned stimulus will produce the conditioned response
Operant conditioning ­ behavior developed as result of consequences
Reinforcement ­ being rewarded for a behavior can be positive or negative
Positive reinforcement ­ A positive or pleasant consequence which increases the likelihood that a
behavior will be repeated in the future
Negative reinforcement ­ a response which removes an unpleasant consequence and increases the
likelihood that behavior will be repeated in the future; sometimes known as avoidance learning
Punishment ­ A negative response where you are punished for a behavior and will result in behavior not
being repeated in the future
Primary reinforcers ­ food or water

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Secondary reinforcers ­ money, tokens, career success and status; not in themselves rewarding but a
natural stimulus linked to primary reinforcers
SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY
Vicarious reinforcement ­ when the observer learns that a model's behavior has been reinforced or
rewarded and increases the likelihood that the observer will imitate the behavior of the model
Mediating cognitive factors ­ Unlike behaviorism, social learning theory says mental processes take
place in between stimulus and response helping the person to decide how to behave
Input ­ the behavior…read more

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COGNITIVE APPROACH
Cognitive neuropsychology ­ studies cognitive processes in people who have suffered different types
of brain damage (Paul Broca used this to discover that a particular part of the brain was responsible for
speech production)
Cognitive science ­ Theories and theoretical development, a debate in cognitive science is about brain
processing
Serial processing ­ the cognitive science theory that information is processed in a linear fashion; one
piece of information at a time
Parallel processing ­ the cognitive science theory that more than one…read more

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Preconscious ­ thoughts that are capable of becoming conscious, bat at any one time are not.
Represents most of what we refer to as stored in long-term memory e.g.…read more

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Suppression ­ the conscious attempt to forget or not to think about certain things
Reaction formation ­ behaving in ways opposite to unconscious impulses, feelings e.g. being nice to
someone you don't like
Displacement ­ transferring impulses and feelings onto an originally neutral or innocent target e.g.
scapegoating Jews
Projection ­ attributing one's own unacceptable impulses onto another person e.g.…read more

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Ideal self ­ what a person aspires to be, together with the morals and values which guide thought and
behavior towards other people
Incongruence ­ when there is a significant difference between a person's self concept (based on
experience) and a person's ideal self.…read more

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