AQA PSYB1: Psychology (B) Unit 1 - Gender development revision sheets

Covers the whole gender topic. Psychologists are highlighted in green. In easy to read bullet point form and organised in easy sections

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  • Created on: 20-05-13 12:11
Preview of AQA PSYB1: Psychology (B) Unit 1 - Gender development revision sheets

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Androgyny ­ People whose characteristics are a balanced mixture of masculine and feminine
Sandra Bem developed the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI)
She suggested androgynous people were more psychologically healthy
Scale has been found to have good test-retest reliability
Whitely suggested high masculine score is more important than androgyny
Gender Stereotypes
1. Adult gender stereotypes about infants ­ adults treat male and female children
differently because of gender expectations; Seavey et al (1975) baby X studies
confirmed this
2. Children's gender stereotypes ­ children soon become aware of gender stereotypes;
Urberg (1982) saw young children have clear expectations about the types of behavior
typical of each sex
3. Gender stereotypes in the media ­ Deloache (1987) saw where no gender is given in a
children's story the adult present characters as male except where characters were
seen to be involved in caring for the young. Also Davis (1990) found television shows
male and female differently;
a. Females are outnumbered 2 to 1
b. Females are younger than male actors
c. Females are four times more likely to be dressed provocatively
Cultural Variations
Mead (1935) carried out a cross-cultural study in three different tribes in New Guinea, observed
behavior of males and females and found different cultures show differences in gender related
behavior. This suggests biological sex does not determine gender roles and that culture is of greater
influence than biology.
Meads methods have been challenged as unscientific
Mead already had strong beliefs that the environment was responsible for gender
related behavior ­ researcher bias
Errington and Gewertz (1989) revisited one tribe, where it appeared females were
dominant, they concluded women did not dominate the men or vice versa
Later Mead changed her views about cultural influences saying women were `naturally'
better at child care

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Though recent research confirms cross-cultural differences in behavior; Fromboise (1990)
investigated gender roles in Native American cultures observing men were not exclusively aggressors,
seeing `warrior' women too.…read more

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Social learning theorists would argue that gender is socially constructed rather than
Social learning theory (pro-nurture)
1. Behavior is learnt as a result of observation
2. Imitation is dependent on the person's perception of their own ability and understanding of
likely consequences
3. Differs from traditional learning theory; doesn't automatically assume that a behavior will be
performed as a result of association between stimulus and response
4. Acknowledges role of social context and key individuals like parents in the development of
gender-related behavior
5.…read more

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Doesn't explain emergence of new trends in gender-related behavior
Doesn't explain differences between same-sex siblings
Neglects biological factors but emphasizes role of cognitive factors in learning
Cognitive approach
1. Focuses on how the child understands gender
2. Focuses on the mental processes that enable a child to learn the appropriate sex-role
3. Cognitive psychologists believe our knowledge of the world is actively constructed
4. Our knowledge is constructed in a process of gradually development
5.…read more

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Research shows that children reject information inconsistent with their gender schema ­
Cordua (1979) showed that 5 & 6yr olds showed better recall when having watched a
stereotypical video than a non-stereotypical one
Evaluation of Cognitive approach
Doesn't explain why males have a more fixed understanding of their gender than females
States that gender understanding begins around 2 yrs but even before labeling own sex children
pick same-sex playmates as if they're already aware of the difference
Takes no account of social interactions assuming that…read more

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Having now resolved the conflict the girl identifies with mother
5. Identification of boy with father and girl with mothers leads them to acquire gender identity and
appropriate characteristics
6. Female identification isn't as strong as male as the female is not as fearful. Freud believes
women are sexually inferior to men, viewing male development as the norm and female as
7.…read more

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Golombok & Fivush - there is little evidence for Chodorow's theory that there are different
bonds between mother and daughter and mother and son but there is evidence for females
being more relationship orientated and males autonomous and independent what is what
Chodorow's theory would predict…read more


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