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Specification Point: Notes:

The major features of Objectivity ­ objective knowledge should be free
science. of opinion or bias and based purely on empirical

Replicability ­ the ability to check and verify the
information by repeating a study.

Falsifiability ­ the ability to demonstrate that a
theory is wrong.…

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Research Methods Interviews and Surveys ­ choose when you need
(selecting and to get detailed information or want to know
applying appropriate in-depth responses.
methods). Observations ­ choose when you want to gather
data without largely influencing the participant's
behaviour or when you are interested in how
behaviour may appear…

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Types Improving validity
Validity and Issues of.
- Internal = the controlling of variables within the - Internal = use measures or scales which have been
study, e.g. does the DV measure what it was designed to previously validated, carefully control all variables
measure? and/or run a pilot study.


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Scattergram ­ show the relationship between two
variables. They show the strength and direction of
the correlation.

Probability and Probability is the likelihood of something happening
Significance and is expressed between the numbers 0 and 1 (0 = the
(interpreting and event will not happen and 1 means it definitely…

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Nominal data is data which is put into categories (or
named), Ordinal data is data which can be put in order
(e.g. 1st 2nd, 3rd) and Interval data is data which is
obtained when there are equal measurements on a scale
e.g. cm or seconds.


Mann-Whitney ­ if…

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groups (key themes) ­ reflect on what the data tells

How to report a A published psychological report contains the following
psychological sections (in order) ­ Title, Abstract, Introduction,
investigation. Method, Results, Discussion, References and

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Writing a Big One! (10/12 marker)
What to include if asked to write up a methods section:

o Not strictly necessary but a nice addition if you want an A!
o Stating a directional or non-directional hypothesis would be fine but you may also wish to include a null…

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Whether the hypothesis/es can be accepted or rejected based on the results of the statistical test.

(don't worry, you don't need to remember this list...they'll tell you it all in the exam!)

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Areas I most need to work on: Areas I am confident




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