PSYA3 Psychology Intelligence- The Nature Approach


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The `Nature' Argument of Intelligence
We inherit intelligence, maybe innate or specific gene.
Twin Studies.
MZ twins, if your twin sibling is intelligent you are more likely to be.
Research Support: "Bouchard and McGue" MZ twins IQ very similar even if reared apart. Average
Concordance rate is reared together 60%. Average concordance if reared apart 72%.
Research Against: "Voracek and Hauber" meta analysis on 30,000 twins and 1.6 million `singletons'
in 6 different countires. All given a variety of intelligence tests. Found on average twins score on average
4 marks less than singletons.
Adoption Studies.
"Horn" The Texas Adoption Project. 300 Texan families and looked at adopted children from
unmarried mothers. When tested at an early age there was a positive correlation between mother and
adopted child. However, after time this intelligence increased/declined to the intelligence of biological
mother. This shows that genetic override environmental factors.
Specific Gene for Intelligence IGF2TR:
"Hill" UK Study on children between 615 years old. Divided them into two groups, clever and not so
clever. Examined each childs chromosome gene to see if the IGF2TR gene was present. 32% of clever
group had it compared to 16% of the not so clever group.
More children in clever group didn't have the gene compared to those who did
May be many different genes
Every psychologist who has retested has got different results.
IQ seen as only indicator of intelligence. "Gardner" would disagree as he believes there are
multiple intelligences.
Cultural Bias, westernised research therefore cannot generalise to all.
Intelligence the same everywhere?
Gender Bias. Males and females are seen as the same. Men and women differ in brain size
which is regarded as a measure of intelligence
Nurture approach would say intelligence is down to environmental factors
Reductionistic, environmental factors have been ignored
Deterministic, IQ used to score intelligence. May be intelligent in other areas. Also states
intelligence is fixed based on your genetics.


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