First 475 words of the document:
The Evolution of Intelligence
Intelligence is adaptive, necessary for our survival. Intelligence is being able to predict in an
Ecological Theory getting food.
T Travelling. Through travelling create cognitive maps (spatial memory)
"Dunbar" Howler vs. Spider Monkeys. Spider monkeys have bigger brains due to the distance they
have to travel for food.
E Extraction. For example the Kung San! Tribe use more elaborate hunting tools and are very
successful. Sign of intelligence.
"Mercader" chimps using stones at nutcrackers are similar to those in early human archaeological sites.
EEA sign of evolving intelligence.
1. Machiavellian Intelligence
Being social has a survival value. "Humphreys" any species with a social hierarchy uses Machiavellian
2. Meat Sharing Hypothesis "Stanford"
Meat sharing is used to form allies. In chimps males offer females meat in return of sex. This shows meat
is being used in a manipulative manner to reproduce. This show cognitive ability and intelligence.
"Watts" looked at male chimps in Uganda. Shared meat more with males, used to form allies which
made hunting more successful.
Research Support: "Hill" Ache people in Paraguay, found that plants and insects aren't
shared, but meat is. Shared to show dominance, in return they get sexual favours off
Research Against: "Wrangham" doesn't believe that this situation is about reproduction.
Thinks its because the people will want the meat anyway therefore they share as not to
waste energy fighting for it.
Bigger the brain the more grey matter you have (in Cerebral Cortex). Sign of intelligence. However, big
brains are life threatening as we have to be born earlier. 1 year used to be pregnancy time, now 9
months. Sign of evolution.
Research Support: "Broman" there is a positive correlation between brain size and IQ. Can
measure the perimeter of the head at 7 years and then can predict later IQ.
However, Gorillas have bigger brains than chimps and are a solitary species which didn't have a
complex social network.
Speculative as EEA
Assumes `g' is the only intelligence. "Gardner" multiple intelligence theory
Gender Differences. "Ankey" US study looked at skulls of 1261 corpses and found men
had larger skulls than women. Ethical dilemma to say men are cleverer.
Einstein has a smaller brain than a womans
Cultural Bias "Beals" looked at schools around the world. Found that Asians and
Europeans had bigger skulls than Africans. May be due to them leaving Africa so having to
adapt their intelligence.