First 411 words of the document:
Evolutionary Explanation of Aggression
Aggression is adaptive, since the EEA. Adaptive for natural selection and sexual selection (Intrasexual).
"Daly and Watson" Jealousy in men all about parental uncertainty Cuckoldry.
"Buss" mass cross cultural study and found that the consistency of behaviour is the same. This is proof
of the EEA and shows its adaptive. Men have therefore evolved a number of strategies to protect
women. Said to be Two Strategies.
1. Direct Guarding. Displaying guarding of female. E.g. "She is mine"
"Wilson" looked at women and their questionnaires. Some questions being `is he jealous?' `does he
hate you talking to other men?' Found that is they answered yes to both questions they were 2 times
more likely to have suffered violent behaviour. 72% of which ended up requiring medical attention.
2. Negative Inducements. Threatening by looks for example.
"Dobash" states that the main reason for the violence from a partner is due to sexual jealousy.
Research Support: "Shackleford" USA survey on 461 men and 560 women who were all in
committed straight relationships. Both asked about how they `kept hold' of their partner (males)
and how there partner `kept hold' of them (females). Men were the assessed on how often they
performed any of 26 types of violent acts. Females asked to explain the violence they had
received from their partner. The men who performed more of these violent acts were seen as
more aggressive in the relationship. Emotional Manipulation was mainly used/
Evaluation of Study:
Doesn't have to be psychical violence, emotional just as horrible.
Self report survey.
(+) Uxorocide. Men only use violence to cope with certain situations as only resource in
protection from infidelity.
Speculative, can't prove it so is non falsifiable.
Social/Behavioural Psychologists would say its all down to Deindividuation or observational
"Buss" Evolved Homicide Module Theory. Fear of infidelity by a younger partner as you fear
you wont be able to pass on genes and someone else will. Therefore kill so no one else can.
Excuses abusive behaviour in relationships.
Neglects Homosexual relationships.
Individual Differences. Not everyone will experience domestic violence, some women more
vulnerable than others
Deterministic, excuses free will.