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SUMMARY OF STRESS
PATHWAYS
Sympathomedullary Pathway
Stressor
Hypothalamus
Sympathetic Branch of the ANS
Adrenal Medulla
Adrenaline and Noradrenaline
Fight or Flight response




STRESS EFFECTS ON THE IMMUNE SYSTEM
Kiecolt-Glaser et al
A: To see how stress of important examinations affects the immune system
P: Used 75 medical student volunteers in…

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P: Used 2500 US naval servants from the in a longitudinal study of six months.
Measured their life events with a Life Changing Unit (LCU) and compared it with their health records and used
correlational analysis.
F: Found a slight positive correlation of +.12
C: Experiencing life events may predict…

Page 3

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DAILY HASSLES AND UPLIFTS
Kanner et al
A: To see if daily hassles and uplifts scale was more accurate in predicting stress than a life events scale
P: 100 white, well-educated and financially comfortable participants selected from a previous study of 7000.
Each participant assessed once a month for 10…

Page 4

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PERSONALITY TYPES AND STRESS
Type A
Competitiveness and achievement striving
Impatience and time urgency
Hostility and aggressiveness
Type B
Patient
Relaxed
Easy-going
Type X
A mix of the A and B personalities
Rosenhan & Friedman
A: To test how different types of personalities affect the likelihood of coronary heart disease…

Page 5

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TREATMENTS FOR STRESS
PSYCHOLOGICAL TREATMENTS
Stress Inoculation Therapy (SIT)
Developed by Michenbaun and Cameron, is a form of CBT as we change the way we think about the stressor
Conceptualisation: The therapist and client establish a relationship, the client is encouraged to talk about
previous stressful situations and how they…

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SUMMARY OF ABNORMALITY
DEFINITIONS OF ABNORMALITY
Failure to function adequately
A person is considered abnormal if they cannot function in day to day life, e.g. not able to get up and dress
themselves in the morning.
Physical illness or disability would prevent someone being able to dress themselves

Deviation from…

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PSYCHODYNAMIC APPROACH TO ABNORMALITY
Based on Freud, abnormality is caused by unresolved childhood conflicts and the unconscious mind

Tripartite theory of personality
Ego: the `real' self, develops around age two
Superego: the moral part of self which develops around age 4/5, arises from learning what is right and wrong
Id:…

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Page 9

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BEHAVIOURAL APPROACH TO ABNORMALITY
Classical conditioning
Learning through association
Little Albert (case study) became fearful of rats by associating the sight of a rat with a loud startling noise

Operant Conditioning
Learning through rewards and consequences
One example is addiction, where someone may become addicted to smoking as they receive…

Page 10

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TREATMENTS FOR ABNORMALITY
BIOLOGICAL TREATMENTS
Drug Therapy
Antipsychotics: Block the D2 receptor for dopamine, which prevents hallucinations and delusions
Anti-anxiety drugs: Benzodiazepines (BZs) enhance the effects of the neurotransmitter GABA, which prevents
other chemicals stimulating neurons and has a sedative effect on the brain causing a fall in anxiety

Patients…

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