Prokaryotic Cells

The function of structures found in prokaryotic cells. A table to show comparisons of a prokaryote and a eukaryote. A label image of a prokaryote. 

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  • Created by: Becky
  • Created on: 19-04-13 13:34
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Prokaryotic Cells
Structure Function
Cell Wall Prevents osmotic damage. Is made of
murein ( a glycoprotein)
Cell surface membrane (plasma membrane) Is a typical phospholipid bilayer
Mesosomes Increases surface area for chemical
reactions. Respiration happens here as there
are no mitochondria
(slime) capsule Helps form colonies or stick to surfaces (e.g.
tooth plaque). Protects against desiccation
(drying out) or phagocytosis
Plasmids Circular DNA
Cytoplasm Contains few organelles:
70s ribosomes, circular DNA, food storage
granules and plasmids
Flagellum Used for locomotion, it propels the bacteria
Pili Binds cells together and exchanges genetic
material. May also act as antigens
Comparison of prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells.
Prokaryotic Eukaryotic
Smaller (1-10 micrometres) Larger (10-100 micrometres)
Cell wall made of murein If cell wall is present it is made of cellulose
(plants) or chitin (fungi)
Ribosomes are small (70s) Ribosomes are large (80s)
Flagella present the cell lacks microtubules If flagella present, there is a 9 + 2 arrangement
of microtubules
No membrane bound organelles (no Many membrane bound organelles
mitochondria or chloroplasts) (mitochondria or chloroplasts)
No endoplasmic reticulum Possess endoplasmic reticulum with associated
Golgi apparatus, lysosomes and vacuoles
No nucleus and no nucleolus Have a nucleus and a nucleolus surrounded by a
nuclear envelope
DNA is circular, has no true chromosomes DNA is associated with proteins forming true
chromosomes

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