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Psychology Revision Pro and Anti Social Behaviour
Aggression is a form of anti-social behaviour. It is a behaviour that intends to harm someone else who
does not wish to be harmed.

Theories of Aggression
1. The Social Learning Theory of Aggression
According to the social learning theory put forward…

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2. A sense of frustration / stress was then induced on the children by making them walk quite a
distance to another room, which was filled with toys, including the hammer and a bobo doll.
3. Once in the room they were watched through a one way mirror and rated…

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It soon became apparent that the hypothesis in its original form was an overstatement but future studies
demonstrated that the greater the degree of frustration the greater the likelihood of aggression.

Close to achieving goal
Harris manipulated the variable frustration by having confederates barge their way into bus stop,

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Prentice-Dunn et al argue that deindividuation occurs due to public or private self-awareness. Public
self-awareness is the individual's sense of being visible to other people. When they are less visible and
less likely to be identified they feel more anonymous and this reduces their self-awareness and as a
result they…

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Environmental Stressors on Aggression
They physical environment may have significant effects on human behaviour. Heat, noise and crowding
may result in heightened physiological and psychological arousal; which in turn could lead to aggressive

Temperature ­ Supportive Evidence

Riots and Violent Crime in the US
Calsmith and Anderson analysed disturbances…

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Donnerstein and Wilson
Donnerstein and Wilson gave participants an essay to write, half of the participants were angered
by having their essays criticised and the other half were praised. The participants were then given
the opportunity to give a confederate an electric shock when she made a mistake on a…

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Pro Social behaviour is a term used to describe behaviour that is beneficial to others. It includes helping,
rescuing, protecting, sharing and cooperating etc. what counts as pro-social behaviour depends on the
values of society.
Altruism is a form of pro-social behaviour in which people will voluntarily help another…

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The results of these experiments generally supported the empathy altruism hypothesis. In the easy
escape/dissimilar attitudes conditions, 18% of participants stayed and helped. In the easy
escape/similar attitude condition 90% of participants helped.

2. The Negative State Relief Model
Robert Cialdini proposed the Negative State Relief Model; it argues that…

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Evidence drawn from labs lack external validity. Can the findings really be generalised?
Participants may have helped due to fear of disapproval (social desirability) or demand
characteristics may have occurred.
Altruistic behaviour can be based on assessment of time and effort (cost) not only egoism/empathy.
Baron found that participants are…

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1. Latane and Darley's Decision Model
There are 5 steps within the decision model of bystander behaviour.
1. Notice of the Event
2. Interpretation of the Event ­ Do they actually need help?
3. Do they Assume responsibility?
4. Do they Select a way to help?
5. Does the bystander…


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