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The Presidency

"The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of
America" (Article II, Section 1)
"No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice"
(Amendment XXII, 1951) ­ this was because of Roosevelt being elected for four
terms on…

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1974 Ford
o Republican
o Took charge from Nixon after impeachment
1968 Nixon
o Republican
o Good foreign policy (USSR and China), but all Watergate
1963 Johnson (LBJ)
o Democrat
o Term and a half ­ Kennedy got inconveniently killed and messed with
the figures
o War on poverty

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Seen with President
Offer support
Formal powers
o Propose legislation
Outlines his plan for the coming year to a joint session of
Congress in a speech (the State of the Union Address) in late
Televised live (makes for publicity and awareness, and puts
pressure from the public onto Congress…

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POTUS basically runs the military, and only asks Congress to
`authorise' his use of troops
Constitution gives Congress the power to declare war, but that
hasn't happened since 1941 ­ every other time the president
has just gone for it. Even Vietnam wasn't a war!
Congress has the `power of…

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o War Powers Act 1973
o Move from imperial to "the imperilled Presidency" (Gerald Ford)
o Economic boom
o Won the Cold War
Bush Jr.
o 1st terms imperialism
o Last two years ­ lame duck
Affects on imperialism
o Public opinion
o Control of the Houses
o Leanings…

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Federal Bureaucracy
What is it?
o The unelected, administrative branch of the executive
o Made up of loads of departments, agencies and commissions
What does it do?
o Carries out policy on a daytoday basis
o Employs nearly 3 million people
o Spends nearly $14 billion pa
o IRS ­…

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Departments don't really want to cut anyway as it makes them
seem less important
POTUS can't break through this iron triangle ­ not really
anything he can do
o Going native
Caring more about the department you work for than the
President's interests
o Parochialism
Narrow selfinterest at the expense…

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Ray LaHood ­ Secretary of Transportation
Steven Chu ­ Secretary of Energy
Arne Duncan ­ Secretary of Education (policy specialist)
Eric Shinseki ­ Secretary of Veterans Affairs
Janet Napolitano ­ Secretary of Homeland Security
o CabinetLevel Officers (sit in cabinet but not heads of departments)
Joe Biden ­ Vice President…

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Chance to speak to each other
o Bad
Not in White House
Not trusted
o Founded in 1939, when the Brownlow Committee reported to
President Franklin Roosevelt that "the president needs help"
o 15 Departments ­ e.g. Office of Management & Budget, NSC
o Purpose of EXOP
Help the…

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Leon Panetta
o James Clapper ­ Director of National Intelligence
o Thomas E. Donilon ­ Assistant to the President and National Security
o Beth Jones ­ Director of the Office of Administration
o Gene Sperling ­ Assistant to the President for Economic Policy and
Director of the Economic Policy…


Old Sir


These comprehensive revision notes are a very good example of one way of organising
'end-point' work. i.e. Notes that address well-known topics that might arise in the exam. Well-organised students should aim to be producing these sorts of notes in the final approach to the exams.

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