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Caregiver-infant interactions (AO1)
· Interactional synchrony: "mirroring"
Newborn babies have alert phases and signal when they are ready for
interaction. Mothers respond to these around 2/3 of the time. Two people are
said to be synchronized when they carry out the same action simultaneously.
Interactional synchrony can be described as "the coordination of micro level
behaviour" (Feldman 2007)
· Study: Meltzof and Moore (1977) observed the beginnings of interactional
synchrony in infants as young as two weeks old. An adult displayed one of three
facial expressions or gestures and the child's response was filmed. An association
was found between the expression and the action of the child.
· Synchrony provides the necessary foundation for the mother and infant
connection.
· High synchrony = high quality attachment (Isabella et Al)…read more

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Caregiver-infant interactions (AO1)
·Reciprocity: One person responds to the other.
·From around 3 months reciprocal interaction tends to
be increasingly frequent, when each person responds
to the other and elicits a response from them.
·Involves close attention to each others verbal signals
and facial expressions.
·Study: Brazleton et al described this interaction as a
`dance'.…read more

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Caregiver-infant interactions (AO3)
limitations
· Hard to know what's happening when observing infants
What is being observes is merely hand movements or changes in expression. It is
difficult to be sure, based on these on these observations, what is taking place
from the infant's perspective. Eg. Is the infants imitation conscious and
deliberate? We cannot be certain mother-infant interactions have a special
meaning.
· Observations don't tell us the purpose of synchrony and reciprocity
Feldman (2012) pointed out that synchrony simply describes behaviour that
occur at the same time. These are robust phenomena in the sense that they can
be reliably observed but it doesn't't tell us their purpose.…read more

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Caregiver-infant interactions
(AO3) limitations
· Research is socially sensitive
It suggests that children may be disadvantaged by particular child-
rearing practices. Mothers who return to work shortly after the child
is born restrict the opportunities for achieving interactional
synchrony this suggests that mothers shouldn't return to work so
soon ­ this has obvious socially sensitive implications.…read more

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Caregiver-infant interactions (AO3)
strengths
· Uses well controlled procedures
mother-infant interactions are usually filmed, often from different angles
so very fine details can be reported and analyzed later.
· Also babies don't know they're being observed so their behaviour doesn't
change. Good validity.
· It has potential value to society. It
stresses the importance of the foundation in the formation of high quality
attachment could have parental applications that benefit society.
study: Crotwell et al found that a 10 min parent-child interaction therapy
improved interactional synchrony n 20 low-income families compared to a
control group. The findings suggest that research on interactional
synchrony could lead to more valuable methods for improving and
developing mother-infant attachments.…read more

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