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C7.1 Alcohols, carboxylic acids and esters s2
C7.2 Energy changes in Chemistry s14
C7.3 Reversible reactions and equilibria s20
C7.4 Analysis s26
C7.5 Green chemistry s…read more

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Alcohols, carboxylic acids and esters
Name Molecular formula Structural formula
Methane CH4
Ethane C2 H 6
Propane C3 H 8
Butane C4H10
The alkanes are a family of hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbons contain
carbon and hydrogen only.…read more

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Alkanes burn in air. In a good supply of air, the
combustion products are carbon dioxide and water.
Alkanes are good fuels. Natural gas, for example, is
mainly methane. We burn it to cook, heat buildings and
generate electricity.
CH4 + 2O2 CO2 + 2H2O
Methane + oxygen carbon dioxide + water
Alkanes do not react with solutions of acids or
alkalis. This is because the C-C and H-H bonds in
alkane molecules are unreactive.…read more

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The alcohols are another family of organic compounds.
Alcohol molecules contain an OH functional group.
Name Molecular formula Structural formula
Methanol CH3OH
Ethanol C2H5OH
We use ethanol in many ways;
As a solvent- in perfumes, for example
As a fuel
In drinks like beer, wine and vodka
The chemical industry uses methanol as a raw material to
make glues, foams and windscreen washer fluid.…read more

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The physical properties of alcohols
Methanol and Ethanol mix well with water because their
OH group is similar to water, H2O. Alcohols with long
hydrocarbon chains, like heptanol, do not mix with water.
The long hydrocarbon chain does not interact with the
water molecules.
Ethanol boils at 79c. Propane, with a similar relative
formula mass to ethanol, boils at -42c. The alcohol has a
higher boiling point because OH groups tend to pull its
molecules together.
Ethanol has a lower boiling point than water. There are
only weak attractive forces between the hydrocarbon parts
of ethanol molecules. So ethanol molecules are held
together less strongly than water molecules.…read more

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