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DEMOCRACY

ABRAHAM LINCOLN: democracy is the
government of the people, by the people,
for the people.

In Athens qualified citizens discussed
current issues - direct democracy
Use of referendums and initiative helps keep popular involvement


REPRESENTATIVE DEMOCRACY


Large societies, cannot all be involved, choose someone who represents their
views

Key…

Page 2

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THEORIES ON POWER IN THE MODERN STATE

3 TYPES OF POWER

MAX WEBER: believed power depends on force to achieve its ends, identified types
of authority

TRADITIONAL
Things follow natural order, `the way it's always been'
Based on patriarchy
Legitimacy acquired through long continuity

CHARISMATIC
Intense commitment of followers
Believed…

Page 3

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MILLIBAND
State would always operate to the rulers of capital, its different elements
pose no threat

The Labour party has not challenged `big business' to show it can operate
under capitalism in a more humane way

Those in senior positions came from similar backgrounds that predisposed
them to accept the…

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Power is dispersed amongst many groups, prestige and organizational
clout are also factors

Power is available to everyone, no personal can realize all of their goals
but everyone can organize some

A neutral honest broker that ensures there is equality of group
influence
Over time there will be a balancing…

Page 5

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PAERTO
Critical of Marxism and did not see society in terms of struggle
Placed emphasis on personality of elites, distinguished between lions that
were at ease with exercising force and foxes that used cunning. Most of
the population fell into neither of these categories, so were of no use in…

Page 6

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CRITICISMS
MARXIST
Wealth based power not the only form of control
Elites in non communist countries do not always support capitalist view
point
No withering of the state has yet occurred and theory not easily
demonstrated

PLURALISM
O Ignores Luke's second and third face of power, by which voters are…

Page 7

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THE DISTRIBUTION OF POWER IN MODERN BRITAIN

EXECUTIVE e.g. Elected government
Develop policies and bring them to the population
Most bills become laws
Therefore governments have the power to change how we live

CIVIL SERVICE
Responsible for administering the laws parliament has passed
Whitehall departments and executive agencies advice
ministers,…

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More willing to rule on political matters
Judicial intervention on public policy has become apparent e.g.
more willing to perform reviews, involved in human rights
issues
More willing to publicly air disapproval of government policies

EUROPEAN UNION
Many decisions no longer made in London but Brussels
Labour introduced policy of…

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SAUNDERS: Pointed to the growth in shared ownership

Marxist perspective agrees with the increase in shared ownership but believes this
has not modified the domination by ruling class. Economically dominant class exists
at the top, below status circles that overlap, strong bonds due to social
background.

Free movements of capital…

Page 10

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MAINTAINING INTERNAL ORDER
Expected that people will abide by rules, transgression = punishment
Government ministers responsible for maintaining internal security, ensuring
procedures are in place

Four motivations for punishment
Retribution
Reformation
Deterrence
Prevention

The armed forces
possess enormous physical
power, have weapons and
technology


Some countries are ruled by military…

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