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"RELIGION IS ABOUT CONSUMERISM, WHERE SPIRITUAL SHOPPERS LOOK IN THE SPIRITUAL
MARKETPLACE FOR A PRODUCT THAT SUITS THEIR LIFESTYLE" TO WHAT EXTENT DO
SOCIOLOGICAL ARGUMENTS AND EVIDENCE SUPPORT THIS VIEW?
o A theoretical perspective that succeeds modernist views like functionalism and
Focuses on concepts such as the D EATH OF THE META-NARRATIVE(all views are equally valid, not all
necessarily true/right), INDIVIDUALISM (emphasis on personal choice, placing own needs in
front of others) and FRAGMENTATION
/D IVERSITYof society (globalisation has led to introduction of
new beliefs and ideas, letting people become more picky with their own beliefs, no longer
relying on past traditions).
Could define consumerism, spiritual shopping, etc.,
For =Postmodernism Against = Other arguments/ theoretical
DAVIE - BELIEVING WITHOUT BELONGING VOAS AND CROCKETT CRITICISING DAVIE
Religion is becoming privatised , it is therefore Found that both church attendance and belief
not in decline but changing. in God is declining.
Due to a lack of societal pressure to go BRUCE further expands on this point =
to church it is no longer the centre those who are not willing to invest
of social life, people now have other time in going to church reflects a
options for leisure and do not depend decline in belief and therefore do not
on religion wish to belong , causing a decline in
(Could be due to the
GENERATIONAL EFFECT: their involvement with religion.
those of younger generations are half
as religious as the previous).
Can now worship in the home
o i.e. televangelism
o VICARIOUS RELIGION small groups
of clergy practise on the behalf
of a bigger population
HERVIEU-LÉGER SPIRITUAL SHOPPING BRUCE
Lack of church going is due to CULTURAL AMNESIA Argues that consumerist religion is weak and
(loss of collective memory). People now have had no effect on the lives of its members . The
a personal choice of religions. Religion = rise of spiritual shopping is evidence of
individualised , we are now consumers of secularisation and not the vitality of religion.
religion as spiritual shoppers (PICK AND MIX Unlikely to attract converts
society). Could be seen as a form of cultural
Two religious types of those on a transition/ defence
spiritual journey: o I.e. Afro-Caribbean's and
o PILGRIMS follow an individual Asians use religion to protect
path for self-discovery their culture from assimilating
into the dominant culture and
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CONVERTS offer strong sense of keeping their individual
belonging, based on shared identity.
ethnic background/ religious
doctrine. Recreate community
where tradition has been lost.
LYON 'JESUS IN DISNEYLAND' MARXISTS -
RELIGION AS AN ISA/ `OPIATE'
Agrees with DAVIE and `BELIEVING WITHOUT (ALTHUSSER and
BELONGING' as traditional religion gives way to Marxists believe that religion is used by the
newer religious forms. This could be due to bourgeoisie to maintain rule over the working
globalisation as greater emphasis is placed on class.…read more
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Meets the needs of people, humans ALDRIDGE Argues that men dominating
are naturally religious, so a demand is religious organisations despite women being
constant. more active in them is evidence of their
It is also human nature to seek MARGINALISATION. Uses the barring of women
rewards and avoid costs- they try to from priesthood as an example.
weigh their options equally.…read more
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Irony of the `DEATH OF THE META-NARRATIVE'by
o Argues that meta-narratives are outdated and no longer entirely applicable. They
are all seen as equally valid to each other, but postmodernism itself is a
meta-narrative so its own version of the truth can therefore also be put into