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GCSE Geography Flashcards
Topic 8: Population Change
Population flashcards GCSE Geography Zoe Catchpole…read more

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What is exponential growth?
How do we measure population change?
What is the Demographic Transition Model (DTM) and what are the 5 stages called?
Which countries fall into the stages of the Demographic Transition Model?
What are the trends in the Demographic Transition Model?
What are the factors affecting the rate of population growth?
What is a population pyramid?
How are population structures changing?
What are the social, economic and political implications of population change?
Why do we need to achieve sustainable development?
What is the One Child Policy?
What were the reasons for the One child Policy?
How has the One Child Policy changed over recent years?
What are the impacts of the One Child Policy?
What other birth control programs exist?
How does population structure change through the demographic transition model?
How is population decline recognised?
What are the problems associated with an ageing dependent population?
What strategies have governments put in place to cope with ageing populations?
What are the incentives to having more children to increase the birth rate within a country?
What has the UK done to cope with its ageing population?
What has France done to cope with its ageing population?
What are push and pull factors?
What are the positive and negative effects of population movements?
How have economic movements within the EU had impacts?
How have refugee movements into the EU had impacts?
What is Poland's story?
Draw and label the Demographic Transition Model from memory
Complete natural change calculations
Construct and interpret population pyramids
CHINA'S ONE CHILD POLICY ­ Method of encouraging a sustainable population
KERELA REGION, INDIA ­ The Alternative method of encouraging a sustainable population
UK AND FRANCE ­ Coping with an ageing population.
POLAND AND SUDAN ­ Country of origin for many migrants into the UK. Effects of migration in an EU country
Population flashcards GCSE Geography Zoe Catchpole…read more

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Keyword Glossary
Overpopulation -when there are more than enough people to exploit all the resources of an area such
that the marginal return to each person is lower than that of the optimal population.
Exponential growth- a pattern where growth rate constantly increases, producing a characteristic j
Zero growth ­ a population in balance at a constant level where the birth rate = death rate, so there
is no growth or decrease
Birth rate ­ number of live births per 1000 people per year
Death rate ­ number of deaths per thousand people per year
Natural Change ­ the difference between birth and death rate, expressed as a percentage
Natural Increase ­ the birth rate exceeds the death rate
Natural Decrease ­ the death rate exceeds the birth rate
NIC (Newly industrialised country) ­ countries that have undergone rapid industralisation since the
1960's including Asian `tigers' as well as other industrial nations like Malaysia, the Philippines and
Asian `tiger' ­ one of the four East Asian countries of Hong Kong, South Korea, Singapore and Taiwan
where manufacturing industry grew rapidly from the 1960's to 1990's
MEDC (more economically developed country) - country whose development has led to the presence
of welfare criteria that allow the country to be termed economically more developed
LEDC (less economically developed country) - country whose development has led to the presence
of welfare criteria that allow the country to be termed economically less developed
Demographic transition model (DTM)-a theory of population change over time. Seeks to explain
population increases and decreases through variations in the birth rate and death rate. Based on
observations of historical changes in parts of the EMDW, it is now applied more generally
Demographics -the statistical characteristics of a population's births, deaths, age/sex structure etc
Agricultural revolution - a period of fundamental changes to agricultural systems which tend to
concentrate land and production into fewer hands while increasing yields. Changes may be
organizational and technological.
Life expectancy - average number of years that individuals are expected to live depending on where
and when they are born and spend their lives. May be derived on national, regional or local scale
Fertility rate - The number of live births per 1,000 women of reproductive age, usually taken as 15-
44 years, in a given year.
Infant mortality - The number of babies that die under a year of age per 1000 live births
Rural-urban migration -the movement of people from rural areas to urban areas.
Urbanisation -the increasing percentage of a population living in urban areas due to rural-urban
migration and higher levels of natural increase in the urban areas.
Population flashcards GCSE Geography Zoe Catchpole…read more

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Family planning ­ the move to having pregnancy by choice rather than chance achieved through the
education and emancipation of women, altered attitudes in society and the availability and
affordability of contraceptives.
Population pyramid ­ a graphical representation of the age and gender structure of a country's
Population structure -the ratio of age groups, by sex, within a population
Population policy -government interventions to try and control high population growth, stimulate low
population growth or control the distribution of people within a country.
Sustainable population - A population whose growth and development does not threaten the
success of future generations
One Child Policy ­ an anti-natal population contol policy imposed by the Chinese government in 1979
to limit births In order to prevent famine
Sterelisation - a surgical technique leaving a male or female unable to reproduce
Little emperors ­ in china, a child with no siblings who is regarded as overly protected and spoiled
as a result of the one child policy
Granny Police ­ older women entrusted by the government to `check up' on women of child bearing
Gender imbalance ­ unequal structure of males and females in a population
Female infanticide ­ the unlawful killing of female babies after birth as a result of societal
preference for sons over daughters
GDP/ capita ($) ­ the total value of goods and services produced by a country in one year divided
by the total population, excluding foreign income
Adult literacy rate ­ the percentage of adults in a country who can read and write sufficiently to
function fully in work and society.
Replacement rate - the optimum fertility rate required to maintain a population at its current
size. It is 2.1 children per woman to allow both mother and father to be replaced.
Social changes - any significant alteration over time in behavior patterns and cultural values and
Cohorts ­ splitting the population into three distinct age groups: 0-15 the young, 16-65 the working
age and 65+ the retired sector.
Population flashcards GCSE Geography Zoe Catchpole…read more

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Dependency ratio - the proportion of working class (economically active, independents) to non-working
(non-economically active, dependents) people in a country by the formula:
% pop. aged 0-14 + % pop aged 65+
% of pop. Aged 15-65
Median Age The age which divides a population into two equal sized groups; half the members of the
population are younger than this age, and half are older.
Youthful population ­ (usually seen in LEDCS) higher proportion of young people in population
structure due to high birth rates and a reduction in infant mortality.
Ageing population - (usually seen in MEDCS) an increase in median age of the population, increasing
proportions of population living to old age (and in many cases extreme old age of 85+), increasing life
expectancy and decreasing numbers of children as a proportion of the population.
Retirement ­ leaving a job and ceasing work
Retirement age ­ the minimum age for retirement
Pension (state, private) Money which an individual invests to help support them after they have
retired. State - Government funded retirement benefit received at State Pension age, amount
depends on Nation Insurance record. Private ­ an individual contributes part of salary into financial
institution which is available as a lump sum upon retirement
Pension crisis - there is not enough money to cover the increasing pension demands, largely due to an
ageing population
Quality of life - a component of development. At a basic level it involves such measures as access to
water, food, health and education etc. At higher levels, it may include freedom of speech and religious
worship, how secure and contented people are with their lifestyle
`Baby boom' - A temporary marked increase in the birth rate, esp. the one following World War II.
`Pensioner boom' ­ Those `baby boomers' born in the 1940's are now retiring to create a `pensioner
Sustainable development - development strategies that do not compromise the ability of future
generations to meet their needs.
Population flashcards GCSE Geography Zoe Catchpole…read more

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Migration the movement of people from one area to another, with the intention of staying at
least a year
Immigrants ­ people moving into a country Emingrants ­ people exiting a country
Push factors - things about a person's country of origin that make them decide to move Pull
factors - things about a person's destination or host country that attracts them.
Internal migration ­ Migration within a country or nation
European Union EU - The European Union (EU) is an economic and political union of 27
member states which are located primarily in Europe.
Economic migrant ­ someone who migrates voluntarily in order to improve their standard of
Country of origin ­ the country from which migration starts
Host country ­ the country where a migrant settles
Remittances ­ a payment of money sent to another person in another place
Refugee - a person who flees their home country through a fear of persecution on the
grounds of race or religion, or membership of some other group.
Refugee camp - a temporary settlement built to receive refugees
Asylum seeker - A person who asks the authorities for protection and recognition as a
refugee. Such persons are called asylum seekers until their applications have been decided.
Displacement - The enforced departure of people from their homes, typically because of war,
persecution, or natural disaster
Civil war - A war between citizens of the same country
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Mr A Gibson


If the question is on population - then the answer is definitely in here - and more besides. This is very thorough indeed and should be used as a resource for everything to do with this topic. Brilliant!

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