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Sub Saharan Africa
Changing population structure
· Stage 2 (High but steady birth rate (br) and falling death rate
(dr) ) of the Demographic Transition Model (DTM) in 1980.
· The br began to fall by the end of the 1990s as education was
slowly improving, more healthcare workers were becoming
accessible to discuss family planning and contraceptives.
· However, HIV/Aids epidemic caused an influx in the dr and
stopped Sub-Saharan Africa from progressing through the
DTM.
· Therefore, this is a good example of how some countries
didn't follow the DTM because a natural disaster/or disease
epidemic could occur, this is because the DTM shows how
countries develop as a result of industrialisation.…read more

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Iran ­ Baby Boom
Changing Population Structure
· In 1979-1989 18 million babies were born which meant a quarter of the population was 15
years or under in 2006, this is called a youthful population. Reasons for the baby boom
was the encouragement of economic growth resulting as more young people were
provided with skills and opportunities to become economic productive agents.
· There was a possible danger of another baby boom due to so many young people. But
another problem is the potential of an ageing population due a longer life expectancy in
the large numbers of young people. Therefore the healthcare system may be drained and
resources may not be sufficient for everyone. Rural to urban migration from Afghanistan
meant that the population increased further.
· Country became aware that improvements in family planning needed to be considered .
So solutions to this are free contraception, compulsory sex education classes. In 1993 the
government decided to pass a family planning law that encouraged couples to have fewer
children by restricting maternity leave benefits after three children.
· There is also strong support from religious leaders that encourage smaller families and the
media was told to raise the awareness of population issues and family planning
programmes.…read more

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Italy's Falling Birth Rate
· Stage 5 of DTM with low birth rate and ageing population. In recent years the
birth rate has been falling rapidly. This is partly due to the close family
structures so young Italians have stayed at home longer than other young
Europeans.
· This has been reinforced due to full time education making the young more
dependent on their parents. Housing prices have risen so it has made it difficult
for young adults to set up their own home. Also fewer well paid but low-skill
jobs than before, and state benefits/allowances for families and children are
much lower than in most other EU countries.
· Developing policies has been suggested by Italian commentators to the
government to achieve sustainability and keep a balanced structure of workers
by:
· Grants in education for young people to empower them.
· Managing immigration by selecting new migrants to match labour force
vacancies.
· Also, allowing access to citizenship rights for migrants and encouraging them
to settle and start a family.…read more

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Over and Underpopulation
· Optimum Population ­ pptn at which the
quality of life for people in a country/region
is the highest possible at the level of
technological development.
· Overpopulation ­ when any increase
reduces the average quality of life for a
population.
· Under-population ­ when an increase could
increase the average quality of life for a
population.…read more

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Models
Malthus - Pessimist
· In 1798, he came up with the theory that population growth
will lead to famine. But if `people showed moral restraints'
then a decreasing population would result.
· This was due to his theory that population grows at a
geometrical rate whilst the food supply would grow at an
arithmetic rate e.g. pptn growth: 1, 2, 4, 8 etc.
food supply growth 1, 2, 3, 4 etc.
· However, his predictions didn't come true because in the 19th
century there was an agricultural revolution, increased trade
which diversified the available food, also he didn't predict
people would emigrate to Europe in search of new territories
such as North America and Australia.…read more

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