Population and Migration Article

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2Migration and
In studies of population, the term movement (or mobility) has two components
-- migration and circulation. Both involve people shifting locations. Migration refers
to those moves involving a change of residence that lasts for at least 1 year.
Circulation involves moves that are shorter term; the changes in location are in a
sense temporary. Shopping, commuting, tourism, pastoral nomadism and shifting
cultivation are examples.
It will only take you a little time to come up with a list of population movements.
No doubt your examples will be drawn from different parts of the world. It is also
likely that they will differ in terms of scale (i.e. numbers of people and distances
Figure 18
A classification Population movements
of population
Migration Daily Weekly Monthly Seasonal Long term
International National
Voluntary Forced Voluntary Forced
22 Contemporary Case Studies

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Part 2
involved), when they occurred and for what reasons. Figure 18 suggests one possible
classification that helps us to put these and many more examples into a single
framework. Migration and circulation represent the first-order subdivision.
Circulation is then subdivided on the basis of its frequency. Equally, it could be
broken down on the basis of its purpose, as suggested by the examples in the
previous paragraph. The classification of migration is rather more complicated.…read more

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There is also a third side to impacts, namely the effects of the move on the migrant.
What sort of reception does the migrant receive? Are migrants welcomed and how
easy is it for them to become assimilated into the host society?
It is possible to produce a conceptual framework for migration studies by a cross
application of the motives and impacts subdivisions. This yields a matrix of six
compartments (Table 1). The case studies that follow illustrate each of these six
different contexts.…read more

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Figure 20
The `push­pull'
Push Pull
+ + ­ +
­ ­ +
­ + ­
+ + +
+­ +
obstacles ­ + Positive factors
+ ­ ­ Negative factors
Neutral factors
Origin Destination
Push forces work in the migrant's current location. They can range from unem-
ployment to persecution; from natural disasters and famine to poverty and war.
The pull forces are those that attract the migrant to a particular location.…read more

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Over the last 150 years, the concept of push and pull has been refined, and a range
of other ideas has been applied to the study of migration. They are summarised
in Table 2.…read more

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Part 2
attractive to work abroad, where their skills are eagerly snapped up. The outflow is
seriously threatening the country's efforts to raise its rate of economic growth.
It is estimated that 30 000 South Africans left the country in 2001 to join the
1.6 million already living and working abroad. The chances of more leaving are high. As
in most developing countries, emigration from South Africa is essentially a brain drain,
or exodus of skills.…read more

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Just over 70% of emigrants move to five countries, all of
Destination % of emigrants
them English-speaking MEDCs with cultural similarities to,
UK 25 or historic ties with, South Africa (Table 4). The UK is the
Australia 18 most popular destination because around 800 000 South
USA 11 Africans have, or can lay claim to, British passports.…read more

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Part 2
Using case studies Much of what we read, whether it be a textbook or magazine article, has an in-built slight bias
that reflects the values and perceptions of the writer. However, there are contentious aspects of
population and migration in which there is scope for bias of a more sinister kind. This seeks to
persuade the reader to see things in a particular way, which may be removed from both reality
and the truth.…read more

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Out-migration can start, and
aggravate, downward spirals of decline in source areas. Equally, the trickle back of
remittances from emigrants can be a major source of income for family and
relatives left behind.
The next case study focuses on an unusual turnaround in migration and sets out
the hoped-for demographic and economic consequences.
A new life in the Old World
The migration history of Spain shows two major U-turns.…read more

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This sudden U-turn has given momentum to
an initiative taken a few years earlier by some
local authorities in Spain to halt rural depopu-
lation. Since the 1950s, about 2000 remote
settlements across Spain have been abandoned
as a result of emigration and rural­urban
migration. However, the tide may be beginning
to turn in the remote mountainous area of
Teruel Province to the east of Madrid.…read more


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