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2Migration and
In studies of population, the term movement (or mobility) has two components
-- migration and circulation. Both involve people shifting locations. Migration refers
to those moves involving a change of residence that lasts for at least 1 year.
Circulation involves moves that are shorter term;…

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Part 2
involved), when they occurred and for what reasons. Figure 18 suggests one possible
classification that helps us to put these and many more examples into a single
framework. Migration and circulation represent the first-order subdivision.
Circulation is then subdivided on the basis of its frequency. Equally, it could…

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There is also a third side to impacts, namely the effects of the move on the migrant.
What sort of reception does the migrant receive? Are migrants welcomed and how
easy is it for them to become assimilated into the host society?
It is possible to produce a conceptual framework…

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Part 2
Figure 20
The `push­pull'
Push Pull

+ + ­ +
­ ­ +
­ + ­
+ + +
+­ +
obstacles ­ + Positive factors
+ ­ ­ Negative factors
Neutral factors
Origin Destination

Push forces work in the migrant's current location. They…

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Over the last 150 years, the concept of push and pull has been refined, and a range
of other ideas has been applied to the study of migration. They are summarised
in Table 2.

Table 2
Name Date Key ideas
A chronology of
different ideas Ravenstein's laws 1875­89 Most migrants…

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Part 2
attractive to work abroad, where their skills are eagerly snapped up. The outflow is
seriously threatening the country's efforts to raise its rate of economic growth.
It is estimated that 30 000 South Africans left the country in 2001 to join the
1.6 million already living and working…

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Just over 70% of emigrants move to five countries, all of
Destination % of emigrants
them English-speaking MEDCs with cultural similarities to,
UK 25 or historic ties with, South Africa (Table 4). The UK is the
Australia 18 most popular destination because around 800 000 South
USA 11 Africans have,…

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Part 2
Using case studies Much of what we read, whether it be a textbook or magazine article, has an in-built slight bias
that reflects the values and perceptions of the writer. However, there are contentious aspects of
population and migration in which there is scope for bias of…

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living in poorer and more deprived parts of the world. Out-migration can start, and
aggravate, downward spirals of decline in source areas. Equally, the trickle back of
remittances from emigrants can be a major source of income for family and
relatives left behind.
The next case study focuses on an…

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Part 2
This sudden U-turn has given momentum to
an initiative taken a few years earlier by some
local authorities in Spain to halt rural depopu-
lation. Since the 1950s, about 2000 remote
settlements across Spain have been abandoned
as a result of emigration and rural­urban
migration. However, the tide…


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