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Background: Conflict
·Created after WW1 and contained several different ethnic ·1991 Slovenia broke away followed by Croatia
groups ·Milosevic's aims began to change, federation could go
·After WW2 was reconstituted as a federation and ruled by but he would maintain control of Serb-inhabited areas
communists under Tito in non-Serb republics by using Serb-led Yugoslav army
·Remained independent from Soviet Bloc ·Slovenia had no Serb minority and was allowed to
·Death of Tito 1980 led to the weakening of forces holding leave after small scale fighting
Yugoslavia together encouraged nationalists in several ·Large Serb minority in Croatia and Milosevic
republics to seize chance and break away encouraged them to resist Serb control. Bloody warfare
·Motivation for doing so increased by rise of Milosevic, a ensued in 1991 as Serbs seized control of 1/3 of
communist leader, who kept his stronghold by championing Croatia.
Serb nationalism
·Nationalists in other areas were likely to seek
International Intervention:
Disintegration of ·EU took the lead as Europeans viewed this as a
Yugoslavia chance to demonstrate new cohesiveness and impact
of new EU diplomacy.
·Initial aim was to maintain the Yugoslav Federation;
Kosovo the EU wanted to preserve regional stability and avoid
·See next
·Slovenes then used force to break away which
slide. forced EU to alter position:
·Mediator Lord Carrington attempted to draw up terms
of independence that would suit each republic. These
International Intervention II. terms were rejected by Milosevic.
·The UN imposed an arms embargo ·Germany then broke rank with the EU and forced the
on the whole of Yugoslavia (did not recognition of independence for Slovenia and Croatia.
stop fighting but suited Serbs) ·In the absence of a peace settlement, EU tried and
·Fighting eventually died down as failed to broker a cease fire.
Serbs had territory and UN
peacekeepers (UNPROFOR) were
sent in to supervise demilitarisation
of Serb-held areas…read more

Slide 2

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US Intervention ­ October 1998
·Conflict cannot be separated from rest of Yugoslavia.
·Happened because Serbians were massacring in
·Milosevic came to power exploiting Serb nationalism.
attempts to destroy the KLA.
He destroyed autonomy of Kosovo and stripped away
·Serb atrocities continued (Racak massacre in
rights of 90% Albanian majority in Kosovo.
January 1999) leading western powers to call both
·Tactics of terror and ethnic cleansing had already been
sides to negotiations at Rambouillet .
used previously in Croatia and Bosnia.
·Serbs rejected US proposals of autonomy for Kosovo
·Western appeasement of Milosevic allowed him to
and future vote on status.
believe he could carry on being repressive in Kosovo.
·NATO launched air strikes on Yugoslavia and began
·Belief that only force would win encouraged creation of
Kosovo War.
Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA) as their peaceful
resistance had been ignored by the West.
·NATO governments tried air strikes, but
underestimated Milosevic who began to
Willingness of NATO governments to force out the Albanian population leading
intervene was due to mixture of reasons: Kosovo to 11000 deaths and 800,000 refugees.
·Humanitarian: Serb atrocities were given full ·NATO unity held, bombing intensified
media coverage , leading to calls for action from US and damaged the Serb economy.
·Strategic: Serbs `ethnic cleansing' could lead There were signs that NATO may launch a
to a refugee crisis that could potentially ground war contributed to Milosevic's
destabilise Albania and Macedonia where decision to admit defeat.
there was an Albanian minority with
grievances against Slav. Majority. War in
Macedonia could draw in Greece and
Bulgaria, which would destabilise Balkan
region. Peace Settlement June 1999:
·Withdrawal of Yugoslav forces and occupation of Kosovo
by NATO led force (KFOR) was authorised by UN with a
UN civil administration to govern Kosovo
·Demilitarisation of the KLA and autonomy for Kosovo
·No provision for a vote on independence
·Western, particularly EU, aid to help reconstruct the
region (not given to Serbia until the fall of Milosevic)
·KFOR occupied Kosovo with UK, French, US and Italian
·Russian forces from Bosnia staged unauthorised attempt
to seize Pristina airport but backed down over demands
for a zone of its own.…read more

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War set a precedent for foreign
·Outcome differed from Bosnia. intervention for humanitarian reasons in
·Defeat in the war contributed to the fall breach of national sovereignty
of Milosevic and eventual handover to ·Strongly opposed by Russia and
Hague war crimes tribunal by the new China for the above reasons.
government in 2001. ·NATO never attempted to get UNSC
·Can be argued justice was finally approval and bypassed the UN
done. completely.
Outcome of
the conflict in
·Critics argue that NATO bombing
was the cause of many civilian deaths ·The war did not stop trouble in
and war worsened the ethnic Macedonia: a massive, permanent
cleansing that it was supposed to influx of refugees to Macedonia was
prevent. prevented but Albanian rebels were
able to take advantage of Serb
·Used bases and arms from
Kosovo to start a civil war which
·It proved that although intervention against a drew in another NATO force in
small country like Serbia is possible, nothing can 2001.
be done to help Chechnya or Tibet
·Given the opposition of many UN members
and inconsistent willingness of Western
intervention, it remains to be seen if the Kosovo
War is actually that much of a precedent…read more

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·Palestine = historical homeland for Jews, and
religiously significant; is supposedly the `Promised Land' Roots of modern conflict
given by God according to scriptures. ·Palestine was inhabited by Arabs and holy
·Temple in Jerusalem ruins ­ destroyed by Romans places are of great religious significance to
­ Judaism's holiest site. Christians and Muslims.
·Jewish communities established in many parts of ·Despite this, the Zionist cause accepted by
the world, but were a target of discrimination and UK in WW1 and after, Britain was given a
persecution mandate to run Palestine.
·19th Century = the Zionist Movement sought to ·British tried and failed to reconcile needs of
establish a Jewish state for Jews to live freely in Jews and Arabs; this led to violent outbreaks
Palestine. in 1930s as Arab nationalism began to clash
with amount of Jewish immigration.
·Post WW2: the Zionist cause strengthened
due to Holocaust (killed 6 million Jews).
Arab Israeli
Leading Zionists in the allied West won
Conflict ­
backing of Truman for cause.
·Britain faced pressure from Jews to create
Jewish state - British HQ in Jerusalem was
blow up.
·Submitted issue to UN in 1947 ­ partitioning
of Palestine between Jews and Arabs. Britain
gave up mandate.
·The State of Israel attacked by Egypt, Syria,
Lebanon and Jordan and refused division.
·Outcome was overall, victory for Israel, who
gained 73% Palestinian land.…read more

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Arabs refused to accept state of Israel
Israel's victory in 1948 caused new problems:
·Hostility led to 3 wars, 1956, 1967, 1973, which
·Borders became vulnerable to attack e.g. Israel
were fuelled by superpower rivalry (USA and Israel
only held half of Jerusalem
vs. USSR and Arabs)
·Victory accompanied by expulsion of 750,000
·US support gave Israeli militias superior status
Palestinians who lost property and became
refugees, particularly in West Bank/Gaza Strip
·Arab world was traumatised by defeat and
radical nationalist movements overthrew several Why did the International Community
governments become less sympathetic to Israel
after the 1967 war?
·Proved they had technological and
military capability to defend themselves
·Annexed Gaza Strip and West Bank and
placed Jewish settlements on land, which
By mid 1970s: is illegal under international law (was
·Israel was in possession of the whole of condemned by Americans)
Palestine, and took West Bank and united
Jerusalem in 1967. Arab Israeli
·Golan Heights was captured from Syria and Conflict ­ 1948 ­
Gaza Strip from Egypt.
·Occupied territories contained 2.5 million
Palestinians, and there were 1 million inside What is Resolution 242?
Israel. ·UNSC Resolution requiring
·More refugees enlarged the refugee camps establishment of a just and lasting peace
·Palestinians in exile set up Palestinian in the Middle East
Liberation Organisation which launched ·Was to be achieved by the application of
terrorist attacks on Israel and Israeli targets following principles:
·Withdrawal of Israeli armed forces from
territories occupied in recent conflicts
·Peace within secure and recognised
Need for peace settlement: borders
Following war in 1973 the US used diplomatic efforts to reach
a peace settlement during the Geneva Summit in 1973.
1977: President Sadat of Egypt flew to Israel to open
negotiations. Peace talks between Egypt and Israel at Camp
David (USA) 1978 followed.
Peace treaty resulted from talks at Camp David and
diplomatic relations were established.
Other Arab states were still horrified and refused to recognise
the state of Israel.
Sadat assassinated in 1981…read more

Slide 6

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What was the Palestinian Intifada?
·Little was done for conflict at Camp David in 1978 ­ Palestinians continued to attack from
Lebanon and there was further conflict 1982.
·Israel invaded Lebanon and forced out Palestinian exiles (PLO leadership went to Tunis).
·Palestinians were massacred in Sabra and Chatila refugee camps by Israel's Lebanese
Christian allies supported by Israeli forces. Israel continued to occupy areas of Southern
Lebanon until the 1990s.
·Late 1970s: right wing Likud governments began to encourage `settlements' (housing
enclaves with Jewish immigrants, protected by Israeli army, usually destroy Palestinian
property in order to obtain) within occupied territories.
·Aim = establish irreversible `facts on the ground' which would eventually lead to permanent
Israeli control of these areas.
·Settlers viewed West Bank as inseparable part of historic Israel .
·Was ALL in defiance of UN Resolution 242 and caused Palestinian resentment.
·Palestinian anger at Israeli policy led to an outbreak of mass rioting or `Intifada' ­ popular
uprising against Israeli oppression.
·Proved difficult for Israeli's to deal with.
What was the cost of Intifada to
the Palestinians?
Palestinian ·1,162 Palestinians were killed by
What was the public relations impact of Intifada Israelis and 241 were children who
Intifada? took an active role in violence.
·Number of media outlets openly criticised ·Approx. 1000 Palestinians were
Israel in a way that had not been done before. killed by Palestinians as alleged
·Conflict was successful in putting Palestinian collaborators. In fact, only 40-45%
issues back on the international agenda for the of those killed had maintained
UN and EU. contact with Israeli authorities.
·Europe became an important economic ·Palestinians' force was proven to
contributor toward Palestinian Authority. be inferior compared to well trained
·USA aid to Israel became more conditional and equipped Israeli Defence
then it had previously been on a superficial Forces.
level.…read more

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