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Slide 1

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SPD,KPD & individual opponents…read more

Slide 2

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· Before Hitler there where several different
Political parties;
· The SPD (Socialist) party
· The KPD (Communist) Party
· The Liberal DDP
· The Catholic centre party
· & the NSDAP (Nazi) party
· Hitler knew that it order for the Nazi party to
gain power he had to get rid of any opposing
· In 1933 Hitler banned all other parties by ways
of outlawing (Socialist & Communist),
converting some to the Nazi (Conservative) &
encouraging the rest to disband (Liberal &
Catholic)…read more

Slide 3

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· Both the SPD & the KPD carried out illegal
· The SPD spies living in Nazi Germany produced
reports on popular public opinion (SOPADE)
· The SPD also created come city based groups
such as the Berlin red patrol & Hanover Socialist
· When Hitler came to power about 10% of KPD
members were murdered, however the KPD
were still better prepared than the SPD
· The KPD created underground opposition
groups & managed to infiltrate the DAF (Deutsche
Arbeitsfront) which was a Nazi trade union also
known as the German labour front…read more

Slide 4

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· This underground group part of the
communist group & was the largest & most
independent resistance organisation in Nazi
· The name was derived from the codenames
given to the different roles inside the
· The Rote Kapelle referred to their radio
operators as "pianists", their transmitters as
"pianos", and their supervisors as
"conductors".…read more

Slide 5

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· The SPD adopted the name SOPADE after
being exiled from Germany to Prague
· The organisation was based not only in
Prague but in Paris too till 1945
· The SOPADE reports were produced by
German spies & reported back on public
opinion to pinpoint any chance the socialist
party had of initiating a revolution
· However, the scope of these activities were
limited by the fear of exposure & threat of
arrest from Gestapo…read more

Slide 6

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· An extract from a SOPADE report from
February 1938;
"To the extent that the attitude of a whole nation
can ever be reduced to a formula, we can assert
roughly the following three points:
1. Hitler has got the approval of a majority of the
nation on two vital questions: he has created
work and he has made Germany strong.
2. There is widespread dissatisfaction with
prevailing conditions, but it affects only the
worries of daily life and has not so far led to
fundamental hostility to the regime as far as
most people are concerned.
3. Doubts about the continued survival of the
regime are widespread, but so is the sense of
helplessness as to what might replace it."…read more

Slide 7

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Slide 8

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Slide 9

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