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FEMINISM
Patriarchy

`rule by the father'
The domination of men in both public and private life
Commonly viewed as the most important social cleavage to Feminists
o Though TENSION lies in that not all Feminists see as most important, for some look
to class and race too.
It is thus…

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Millett: `politics is about power-structured relationships where one person is controlled
by another'.

Equality and Difference

End goal is ambiguous, for some Feminists want equality, i.e. Liberal feminists, whereas
Feminists of the Essentialist branch look to female superiority but highlighting
differences.
Essentialists value difference not equality
o Celebrate women's literature…

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Radical Feminism

Political lesbianism: women's sexual conduct will affect their position in society.
o Atkinson: `Feminism is the theory, lesbianism is the practice'.
o These feminists believe that no true harmony or equality can be gained in a
heterosexual relationship because the male influence makes the women `male
identified', so…

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Women are, in some respects, superior.
France and the US.

Socialist Feminism

Look at how the domestic role of women is used to benefit Capitalism
o Parson's `Warm Bath' Theory
The wife comforts the husband by cooking him dinner, tidying the house,
listen to his troubles and even via sexual…

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Liberals don't wish to rid division of public and private because reforming public helps
freedom in the private sphere.
o Extension of Franchise 1928
o Reform Act 1969
o Equal pay Act 1970
Criticism

o Only focuses on public ­ Radicals dislike this and parody Friedan (below) with the
`Mystique…

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MULTICULTURALISM
Dual Culture

Look to diversity as a means of overcoming social prejudice and polarisation: encourage
unity.
Encourage the merging of numerous cultures and also agrees with having more than one
cultural identity.
However, liberals disagree because the blurring of numerous cultures can become
overwhelming for the individual essence of…

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Socialists limit the multiculturalist view on minority rights because it sets out to prioritise
certain social groups over others instead of attaining for full equality.



Another criticism lies in the discouragement of integration into a society where a culture
has emigrated to: Liberals fault because then this fails freedom of…

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Criticised because stresses unity rather than diversity
Also criticised because cosmopolitanism needs a global consciousness whereas
multiculturalism focuses on distinctive cultural groups

Pluralist Multiculturalism

Particularist
o Positive Discrimination
o Differences of groups emphasised against dominant ones
o Cultural diversity creates unequal power because interests of minorities given
more attention and…

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ECOLOGISM
Sustainability

Boulding's argument that humans treat Earth with a `Cowboy Economy' approach; our
`reckless, exploitative and violent behaviour' exploits the Earth's resources. Boulding then
continues by labelling the Earth as a `Spaceship Earth' whereby the planet is a `closed
system' ­ non-renewable ­ and so our reckless behaviour towards…

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o Links to social-ecologists who recognise that humans should all show compassion to
each other regardless of sex, race, class etc.
Naess: all living organisms have an `equal right to live and bloom'.
Singer developed his idea of `specieism' where different species are valued in accordance
to their level of…

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This set of notes covers the strands of feminism, multiculturalism and ecology concisely and with enough detail to suggest directions in which students might find examples and case studies substantial enough to allow evaluation and analysis (AO2).

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