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Plant Cells & Water Transport

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Contents

Cellulose
Cellulose ­ Uses & Comparison
Plant Cells
Chloroplasts
Palisade Mesophyll Cells
Plant Transport
Uptake of water across a root
Uptake of Water up the Xylem
How water moves through a plant
How water moves through a leaf
Potometer Experiments
Factors Affecting Transpiration Rate
Summary of the Pathway Taken…

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Cellulose
Cellulose is the primary component of plant cell walls. To do
this job, it needs to be able to bond to other cellulose
molecules and be extremely strong.

Formation:
Cellulose is made from beta-glucose rather than alpha-glucose,
which is used as a source of energy.

The only
difference between…

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Cellulose ­ Uses & Comparison



Cellulose is the main
component of plant cell
walls and when molecules
of it are arranged together,
they form microfibrils that
then form fibers.

This is only possible due
to:
The linear structure
due to inverted
beta-glucose
The hydrogen bonds
forming in between
layers that…

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an Compact, can
alpha-helix fit lots of it in a
shape small space
Highly Carbohydrate
branched store in animals
Large & Readily
Glyco Alpha-G
insoluble hydrolysed
gen lucose
Inert Less dense &
more soluble
than starch



In questions always talk about `tensile strength' is it asks about the rigidity
of…

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the support system for young plants and keeps them upright.

The cell wall consists of a primary cell wall, and older ones
may have a secondary inner one as well. The middle lamella, a
thin outer layer, cements adjacent cells together.

In cell walls there are small gaps known as…

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Chlorophyll is located inside the thylakoid membranes
The stroma is an aqueous matrix that contains starch
grains.

Trapping Light

The thylakoid membrane & grana provide a large surface
area for chlorophyll electron carriers and enzymes that
carry out photosynthesis.

The large number of grana mean there is a large surface…

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\

There are long, thin cells that form a continuous layer to
absorb sunlight.

There are numerous chloroplasts that collect light.

The large vacuole pushes the cytoplasm and chloroplasts
to the edge of the call.




Plant Transport

Basically there are two transportation
systems in a plant, the xylem & phloem…

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Uptake of water across a root

Throughout water's passage through a root it will meet:




Root hair cells ­ Epidermal cells
with a large surface area for
water uptake

Epidermis ­ Single outer layer
of cells

Cortex ­ Tissue making the
bulk of the root

Endodermis ­ Single layer of…

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Water can move through the cortex in two different ways:

Symplastic Pathway

Water can move through the cortex via this path. It moves
through the membranes and cytoplasms by osmosis down a
water potential gradient. Plasmodesmata are channels through
the cell wall that connect plant cells together and form
continuous…

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