Plant Cell Structure

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Ellianna Gibbs L6.03
Plant Cell Structure
Belongs to plastids
Site of photosynthesis ­ traps light energy & uses it to produce carbohydrates
from CO2 & H2O
Surrounded by a double membrane ­ chloroplast envelope; it's highly selective as
to what enters/exits the cell.
Filled with stroma, contains enzymes used for photosynthesis, contains DNA &
Membrane inside the chloroplast called thylakoids arranged in stacks called grana
chlorophyll in the thylakoids & grana
The grana creates a large surface area because it packs in more chlorophyll which
allows for a larger surface area for light absorption.
Cell Wall
Made of cellulose
Consists of tiny cellulose fibres called microfibrils glued together by
Cell walls of adjacent cells are glued together by the middle lamella (the boundary
between adjacent cell walls and cements them together)
Provides support to become rigid
Provides mechanical strength:
The ligin in the xylem increases strength which contains extra cellulose
Allows the movement of water & substances in solution because it's permeable
Allows exchange of materials due to pits through fine strands of cytoplasm
(plasmodesmata) are able to pass.
Only in plant cells (permanent)
Vacuole bound by tonoplast
Contains cell sap (sugars, amino acids, mineral salts & waste)
Some cell saps are coloured
Plant Cells Animal Cells
Cellulose cell wall surrounds the cell Only a cell-surface membrane surrounds the
Chloroplasts present in large numbers No chloroplasts
Large, single, central vacuole filled with If vacuoles are present they are small &
sap scattered
Starch grains used for storage Glycogen granules are used for storage


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