Planning an investigation theory

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Geographical skills revision
Planning an investigation
Primary data
Unprocessed information that has not been analysed or interpreted in any
kind of way
Advantages- reliable, not biased or invalid
Disadvantages- time consuming, unreliable or invalid due to human error
whilst collecting and using poor equipment
Secondary data
Information that has been analysed and interpreted
Advantages- quick to collect, more reliable of from a well known source
Disadvantages- biased, can't be certain if the reliability and accuracy of
methods used to collect it.
Sampling size
Point- sample taken at given point such as coordinates on a map
Linear- given points along a line or transect that has something alike such as
along sand dunes
Areal- given area such as a quadrat to measure vegetation cover or on a
grid square on a OS map
Sampling method
Random sampling
Using number tables to randomly generate a number to select a sample
Advantages- statistically sound so could lead to further analysis
Disadvantages- same item could be picked more than once, easy to miss
Stratified sampling
Take account of underlying patterns in data and ensures all are sampled
Advantages- ensures no significant aspect is missed
Disadvantages- data collection is biased, can't make valid statistical
Systematic sampling
Item is selected at regular intervals

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Geographical skills revision
Advantages- easy to do, quick
Disadvantages- interval may coincide with in the data or location, can't
make valid statistical inferences
Pragmatic sampling
Sample where you can get access and where changes are observed such as
troughs and crests of a sand dune system.…read more


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