Piaget's theory of cognitive development

A nice couple of sheets I made on Piaget's theory, which i try to compartmentalise because it's difficult to understand for me. It has a table explaining the different stages, and all the research, and lots of evaluative points.

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Cognitive Development ­ Piaget's theory
Piaget was a constructivist, who believed that children build up knowledge of the world around them
through discovery learning. Central to his theory is the concept of schemata:
Schema ­ A unit of knowledge (i.e. what something is, how to do something, etc)
Assimilation ­ a new object or situation can be fitted into an existing schema (e.g. a child goes from
breast to bottle using the same sucking schema)
Accomodation ­ a schema must be modified to fit in a new object or situation so the child can be in
equilibrium (e.g. from bottle to sippy cup, the child must go from sucking to sipping, and a new
schema develops to allow this transition)
Piaget proposed 4 universal (they apply to every child in every culture) stages of development, here
is an overview of them :
Age
Stage Characteristics Research
range
-Piaget (1963) took a toy from a child
and hid it under a blanket. Before 8
months, they would not search for the
you, but after 8 months of age they
were seen to be looking for it. Piaget
-Understand the world through concluded that object permanence
movement and sensations develops around 8 months of age. (but
Sensori-motor 0-2
-Object permenance develops perhaps they just didn't have the motor
around 8 months. skills yet/ thought that retrieving the
toy was not allowed)
-Bower and Wishart turned out the light
and found that infants as young as 3
months continued to reach out for an
object in the dark.
-Egocentric (cannot take - Piaget and Inhelder (1956) 3 mountain
another person's viewpoint) experiment, sat a child in front of a
model of 3 mountains. Asked them to
describe what they could see and then
to describe what a doll sitting opposite
them could see. Children aged 4-5 were
unable to, but children aged 7-8 were
able to `decentre' and performed well.
-This study may not have made human
Pre-operationa
3-7 sense to children who weren't swiss
l
and hadn't seen mountains before
-Hughes (1978) hiding from the
policeman made more human sense as
it is based on a game of hide and seek.
Showed children aged 3-5 a set up of 4
intersecting walls. Had to hide boy doll
from policeman doll. 90% were
successful; children can decentre at
younger ages than Piaget proposed.

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Conservation develops (the -Conservation 3 beaker experiment ­
ability to know that a change in Piaget took 2 identical beakers filled
appearance doesn't mean a with the same volume of water, then
change in state) poured one of the beakers into a taller,
thinner beaker. Asked pre-op children
which had more in (before and after
pouring). <7 year olds gave incorrect
answer, 7+ gave correct answer.…read more

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