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AQA GCSE Biology ­ Unit 2 summary notes

P2 Physics

Speed and Velocity

A time-distance graph plots distance travelled against the time taken
A slope on a time-distance graph represents speed, the steeper the slope the greater
the speed
o Speed = distance ÷ time
o Distance = speed x…

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AQA GCSE Biology ­ Unit 2 summary notes

The stopping distance is of a vehicle is the distance travelled by the object during the
thinking distance and the breaking distance
The thinking distance is increased if the driver is under the influence of alcohol or
drugs and the braking distance…

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AQA GCSE Biology ­ Unit 2 summary notes

When a force acts on a moving object its momentum changes
Force = change in momentum ÷ time taken
If you increase the time taken then the force exerted decreases e.g. crumple zones and

Static Electricity

If two insulating materials rub…

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AQA GCSE Biology ­ Unit 2 summary notes

Static electricity can be dangerous as well as being very useful
The filler pipes on road tankers that are used to pump fuel into storage tanks are
earthed to prevent them becoming charged because a spark could cause an explosion
Another way…

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AQA GCSE Biology ­ Unit 2 summary notes

o Power = current x potential difference
The potential difference of the mains supply is 230 volts so the equation above can be
used to work out what fuse is needed
In a resistor the electrical energy is transferred to heat, the…

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AQA GCSE Biology ­ Unit 2 summary notes

In a parallel circuit the current varies with resistance between each component

Mains electricity

Cells (and battery's) supply a current which only flows in one direction, this is called a
direct current or DC, however if the current from the mains supply…

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AQA GCSE Biology ­ Unit 2 summary notes

Atoms of the same element can also have a different number of neutrons in which
case it is an isotope, only the neutron number and the electron number can change or
it becomes a different element
An alpha particle consists of two…

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AQA GCSE Biology ­ Unit 2 summary notes

The neutrons go on to produce further reactions creating a chain reaction, in a nuclear
reactor the process of fission is controlled so one fission neutron per fission on
average foes on to produce further fission
Nuclear fusion is the process of…


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