Physics GCSE unit 1 higher tier

This is a word document covering physics unit 1 notes that you wil need to know for the exam. from electricity to electro-magnetic waves everything you have done in class is included with lots of bright colours and pictures for visual learners. The bullet point notes are easy to understand and clear.

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Appliances that heat up are more expensive because they use
More energy.
Power tells us how QUICKLY an appliance TRANSFERS ENERGY.
It is measured in Watts or Kilowatts 1 kilowatt = 1000 watts.
The `kilowatt-hour' is also known as a UNIT.
To work out the total payment due:
Present ­previous reading = electricity used
Electricity used x cost per unit = cost of electricity used + standing charge = total payment due
Electricity demand
Power stations use fossil fuels to provide the bass load for demand; they are run all the time because they take the
longest to start up.
Renewable energies are used to meet the peak demand and at peak times.
Start up times
Power stations fuelled by fossil or nuclear fuels are reliable (provide when needed)
Start up times can vary (nuclear = uranium and plutonium)
Wires can go both over and underground
Underground Overhead
Advantages Disadvantages Advantages Disadvantages
- Not in the way - Difficult to repair - easier to repair - unattractive
- Fewer lightning problems - Careless digging - out of way - lightening
- more expensive - cheaper to repair - hazardous for animals
Step up transformer: increase current decrease voltage => less friction from high current= less thermal energy lost
Step down transformer: decrease current increase voltage = > back to normal
Without transformers = heat is lost in the pylons because of the friction caused by a big voltage and small current.
With transformers = no heat would be lost because by increasing the current and decreasing the voltage less friction
is created and therefore less heat.
Fuel (renewable/non-renewable) Advantages Disadvantages
Fossil fuels (coal, oil, gas) - cheap - releases no CO and SO
Nuclear - no CO or SO - radioactive material storage
- no radiation released - if accident released into environment
Wind turbines - cheap to run - unattractive
- no CO or SO - noise pollution

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Solar cells/panels - cheap to run - expensive to start up
- no CO or SO - unreliable
Tidal - cheap to run - disturb ships/water/habitats
- no CO or SO - unattractive
Hydroelectric - cheap to run - flood river valleys ­ destroying land,
- no CO or SO habitats and environment
- They transfer energy from one place to another
Wave speed
Electromagnetic wave Use 1 Use 2
Radio waves Radio and TV Radio controlled cars
Microwaves Microwave food Satellite…read more

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Characteristics of image in a curved mirror:
Concave Convex
Bigger or smaller Smaller than object
Upside down or right way up Right way up
Could be real or virtual Virtual image
Uses of concave: dentist's tool and funhouse
Uses of convex: rear view mirror and funhouses
Light and reflection
Law of reflection
I: angle of incidence r: angle of reflection
The angle of incidence is the same as the angle of reflection.…read more

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Heat warms particles giving them more energy so they vibrate more, the vibrations move along the
Metal in a domino like effect.
Seaside winds
During the day the cold air from above the sea moves in to take the place
Of the warm air over the land that has risen.
During the night the sea is warmer than the land so the warm air above
The sea becomes less dense and rises. The land cools quicker than the sea
At night.…read more

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Payback time
Divide cost to install by saving per year
Specific heat capacity
The amount of heat required to warm 1kg of a substance by 1 degree.
Measured in units of j/kg degrees Celsius.
Energy= specific heat capacity x mass x temperature change
= joules x kg x degrees
Efficiency tells us how well something works; if efficient it should have more energy useful than wasted.…read more

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Evidence: there are many stars exploding now which form dust. This dust is similar to the dust planets are
made from.
How universe was created: all mater started off at a single point. There was a huge explosion (the big bang), the
universe started to expand rapidly, the stars started to expand rapidly, and stars started to form from dust and gas.
The solar system formed around the sun and life on earth began in the seas.…read more


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