Physics Summary Notes - Mechanics and Heat - Momentum and Energy

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Unit 1.3 ­ Momentum and Energy
There are eight main types of energy. They are:
Gravitational Potential Energy
Sound
Heat
Electrical
Kinetic
Chemical
Light
Elastic Potential
Energy transformation
Consider you are in a car moving along a road. You cut the engine and then go up and over a hill.
There will be several transformations of energy throughout the journey.
The car changes chemical energy into kinetic energy (as well as heat and sound energy) as it moves
along the flat section of the road.

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As it climbs the hill, the kinetic energy is transformed into gravitational potential energy.
As it comes back down the other side, the gravitational potential energy turns back into kinetic
energy.
Finally, the kinetic energy becomes heat energy as the brakes are applied to stop the car.
Work done
In everyday life, the word "work" is used to describe doing something. In physics, the works "work"
has a particular meaning.…read more

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Where:
Ep = Gravitational potential energy in Joules (J)
Mg = mass in kilograms (kg) {remember, w = mg}
H = height in metres (m)
Kinetic Energy
This is the energy that all moving objects have. The amount of kinetic energy that an object has
depends on its mass & speed.…read more

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Where:
P = Power in watts (w)
E = Energy in joules (J)
Ew = Work done in joules (J)
T = time in seconds (s)
The modern unit for power is the Watt (named after the Scottish scientist James Watt). Back in the
days when horses were used to pull things, power was measured in a unit called "horse power". We
can convert form one unit to the other using the following information.…read more

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