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The structure of the atom
negative, mass
nearly nothing
positive, same
NEUTRON ­ mass as
neutral, same neutron ("1")
mass as proton
("1")…read more

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An isotope is an atom with a different number of neutrons:
Notice that the mass number is different. How many
neutrons does each isotope have?
Each isotope has 8 protons ­ if it didn't then it just
wouldn't be oxygen any more.
A "radioisotope" is simply an isotope that is radioactive ­ e.
g. carbon 14, which is used in carbon dating.…read more

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Introduction to Radioactivity
Some substances are classed as "radioactive" ­ this means
that they are unstable and continuously give out radiation:
The nucleus is more stable after emitting some radiation ­ this
is called "radioactice decay".…read more

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Types of radiation 08/16/2014
1) Alpha () ­ an atom decays into a new
atom and emits an alpha particle (2
protons and 2 ______ ­ the nucleus of a
Unstable New Alpha ______ atom)
nucleus nucleus particle
2) Beta () ­ an atom decays into a new
atom by changing a neutron into a
_______ and electron. The fast moving,
Beta high energy electron is called a _____
particle particle.
Unstable New
nucleus nucleus 3) Gamma ­ after or decay surplus
______ is sometimes emitted. This is
called gamma radiation and has a very
high ______ with short wavelength. The
atom is not changed.
Unstable New Gamma Words ­ frequency, proton,
nucleus nucleus radiation energy, neutrons, helium, beta…read more

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Radiation is dangerous because it "ionises" atoms ­ in other
words, it turns them into ions by "knocking off" electrons:
Alpha radiation is the most ionising (basically, because it's the
biggest). Ionisation causes cells in living tissue to mutate,
usually causing cancer.…read more

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