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Particles in action

Alpha ()

Strong ionising
Only travels a few centimetres in air
Stopped by a thin sheet of paper
Helium mass
Alpha decay
The breakdown of a large mass
Occurs with isotope that have 82+ protons

Beta ()

Is ionising
Stopped by 3mm of aluminium
Beta +…

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two gamma rays
photoelectric effect ­ in the photon effect a photon interacts either with an electron which is bound
in an individual atom or with an electron in condensed matter, usually solid, which is not bound

Crompton effect ­ in Crompton effect, the photon
scatters from a…

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Electron gun

1. The source of electron is a metal (cathode)
2. A low voltage supply heats the filament giving the electron
enough energy to leave the surface
3. A high voltage from a d.c. power supply is connected
between the cathode and anode pulling the electron towards the

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Gas properties and pressure

Pressure and volume

The exerted force by the particles hitting the container surface gives the gas pressure. The smaller
the volume the more collisions there would be, so the gas pressure increases.

Pressure and temperature

As the temperature increases the pressure increases in a constant volume.…

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Conservation of momentum:

The momentum before collision is the same after.

Energy, work and power

GP E (J ) = m (kg)×g ( kg ) ×N
h (m)

power (W ) = work done or energy transferred (J )
time (s)

Energy and intensity
( m2) intensity= power


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Pulse oximetry

The pulse oximeter is for measuring the oxygen in the blood in the arteries. A sensor (a photodiode)
is placed on one side of the finger to detect a beam of red light, from an LED and a beam of infrared
radiation from an IRED. The ratio of…

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PET scan

The tracers depend on what the scan is for. A commonly used radioisotope is fluorine-18. A nucleus
of F-18 is used to replace an oxygen nucleus in a sugar molecule. When the radioactively tagged
glucose is injected into the bloodstream, it travels to parts of the body that…


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