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Physics Modules P4, P5 and P6
Module P4 ­ Explaining Motion
Speed is the distance travelled in a certain time.
To find the speed of an object you need to know the distance
travelled and the time it takes.
Using the speed triangle cover up the letter you want…

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o Friction between two sliding surfaces.
o Resistance from liquid or gas. You push the molecules out the way causing friction,
which is why you get friction, think aerodynamics.

Forces and Motion:

Arrows show the size and direction of force, a larger force = longer arrow.
If you have one…

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Kinetic energy is movement.
Anything moving has kinetic energy, the greater the mass and speed the bigger the kinetic
energy (J).
Kinetic energy = ½ x mass x velocity²
To increase something KE you need to increase its speed. The only way to do this is to apply a

Page 4

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Circuits ­ The basics:

The standard circuit has an ammeter, a voltmeter in parallel with a component, and a
variable resistor. Oh, and a battery. Obv.
Voltmeters measure the potential difference between two points. So you have one
around the battery and one around the component so you can see…

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If one thing disconnects, the circuit is broken, so they aren't very handy and very few things
are connected.
Potential difference (Voltage) is shared around the components. V = V + V
Resistance adds up, so if 4 components are in the circuit 1 with 5 ohs, 1 with 3…

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Primary coil produces a magnetic field, which stays in the iron core.
Because it is AC the magnetic field is constantly changing.
The changing magnetic field induces an AC current in the secondary coil.
The relative number of coils in the secondary coil determines more or less voltage.
If you…

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o Ripples on water.
o Waves on strings.
o A slinky wiggled up and down.
In transverse waves the vibrations are at 90° to the
direction of the wave.
Longitudinal waves have vibrations along the same line.
o Sound and ultrasound.
o Shock waves (seismic waves)
o A slinky spring,…

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Wave Interference:

When waves meet they cause disturbance.
When waves are in step you add the placement, when they aren't you subtract it.
Interference of light makes bright and dark patches.
Constructive interference makes it bright, destructive interference makes it dark.
Light and sound must be waves because
o They…

Page 9

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o Bones absorb it, flesh doesn't, so where it goes through you turns the plate black,
and where your bones are it stays white.
o There also used in airports.
Infrared and light are used in optical fibres.
o The single doesn't weaken much.

Adding Information to waves:

Information is…


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