Physics P2 Complete Revision

Revision Notes for AQA Physics P2

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  • Created on: 27-12-09 17:55
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P2-1 : Motion
Speed and Velocity
The table below shows the distances travelled by a car over a given amount of time:
Distance (m) 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000
Time (s) 0 40 80 120 160 200 240
We can represent this as a graph:
We call this type of graph a distance-time graph as it plots distance travelled against time
taken. A slope on a distance-time graph represents speed. The steeper the slope is, the
greater the speed. We can use chosen figures to calculate the speed from the graph
This formula can be rearranged to show either of the following formulae which we use to
work out distance or time:
Generally, speed is measured in metres per second (m/s).

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Velocity is speed in a given direction. This means that if a moving object changes direction,
its velocity changes even if its speed stays the same. When the velocity changes, we say it
accelerates. Acceleration is calculated using the following equation:
Acceleration is generally measured in metres per second squared (m/s²). If the value of
acceleration is negative, the object is slowing down, or decelerating. A velocity-time graph
plots the velocity of a moving body (y axis) against the time taken (x axis).…read more

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Resultant Force
Because most objects tend to have multiple forces acting on them, the resultant force is the
single force that would have the same effect on the object as all the other forces together.
When the resultant force is zero, it means the object will remain stationary if already
stationary, or if moving it will carry on moving at a constant speed.…read more

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Eventually, this would be equal to the weight of
the object ­ this resultant force is now zero, so the object will stop accelerating and begin
moving at a steady velocity ­ called the terminal velocity.
P2-3 : Work and Energy
Energy & Work
When a force moves an object, energy is transferred and work is done. When an object
starts to move a force must have been applied to it. This force needs a supply of energy
from somewhere, e.g. from electricity or fuel.…read more

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When a force acts on a moving object (or an object which is able to move), its momentum
changes. The equation below describes this:
force = change in momentum ÷ time taken for change
N.B. Look at car safety features, especially air bags and crumple zones, to investigate how
we make use of momentum changes.
P2-4 : Static Electricity
Charge
If two insulating materials rub against each other, electrons are rubbed off one material and
deposited on the other.…read more

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When the same dry cloth is rubbed on the perspex rod, the electrons are transferred from
the rod onto the cloth.
Like charges repel and opposite charges attract, the bigger the distance between the forces,
the weaker the force.
When a charge flows through a conductor, there is a current in it. Electric current is the rate
of flow of charge. In a solid conductor, e.g. metal wire, the charge carriers are electrons.…read more

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P2-5 : Current Electricity
Electrical Circuits
Every circuit component has its own symbol. These are some of the main ones.
The symbols shown relate to their descriptions below. We use these symbols to make circuit
diagrams to show how components are connected to make a circuit.…read more

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A). The potential difference, or voltage, is measured using a voltmeter, which is
always placed in parallel with the component. The unit is a volt, V.
The graph shows a current-p.d. graph for a wire at a constant temperature. If the resistor is
kept at a constant temperature, the graph will always show a straight line passing through
the origin. This shows us that the current is directly proportional to the potential difference
across the resistor.…read more

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Power is measured in watts (W). Energy is measured in joules, J and time in seconds, s. In an
electric circuit, it is more common to measure the current and potential difference of a
device. We can also use current and p.d. to calculate the wattage:
Power = current x potential difference
Power again is measured in watts. Current in amps, A and p.d. in volts, V. Electrical
appliances must have their power rating shown on them.…read more

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The two graphs above show the current-potential difference graphs for a filament lamp
(left) and a diode (right).
Series Circuits
In a series circuit, the components are connected one after the other, so if there is a break
anywhere, the current stops flowing. Because there is no choice about the route of the
charge as it flows around the circuit, the current flowing through each component is the
same. The current depends on the potential difference (p.d.…read more

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