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Physics Notes

Heat Transfer

Thermal radiation is heat energy. It is also called thermal radiation.
Thermal radiation is energy transfer by electromagnetic waves.
The hotter an object the more thermal radiation it emits (gives out).
Radio waves, microwaves, infra-red radiation, visible lights and X-rays are all part of the…

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Energy is measured in joules.
Energy supplied = useful energy + wasted energy.
Efficiency = useful energy / total energy supplied.

Electrical energy

Electrical energy is energy transfer due to an electric current.
The energy supplied per second to the motor, is the power supplied to it.
Power is measured…

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Tidal power ­ The water after each tide is kept behind a barrage. The high tide is released in
sea, which turns the turbine, which turns the generator producing electricity.
Solar cells convert the energy they absorb into electrical energy. They are useful in small
amounts. They are expensive but…

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Ultraviolet radiation is electromagnetic radiation between violet light and X-rays in
Ultraviolet radiation makes some chemicals emit light.
Ultraviolet radiation is harmful to human eyes and causes blindness. Ultraviolet (UV)
wavelengths are smaller than light wavelengths so they carry more energy and cause
sunburn and skin cancer.
Infra-red radiation…

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A plant or wood (carbon) has a half life of 5600 years.

The Origins of the Universe

The wavelength of light increases across the spectrum from blue to red.
The light waves are spread out if the star or galaxy is moving away from us. We call this a red…


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