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Physics Key Points
Distance-time graphs
The gradient of the line on a distance-time graph represents an object's speed.
The steeper the line on a distance-time graph, the greater the speed it represents.
Speed (m/s)= distance
travelled (m)
time taken (s)

Velocity and acceleration
Velocity is speed in a given…

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Force and acceleration
The bigger the resultant force on an object, the greater its acceleration.
The greater the mass of an object, the smaller its acceleration for a given force.
Resultant force (f ) = mass (m) x acceleration (a)

On the road
Friction and air resistance oppose the driving…

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Gravitational potential energy
The gravitational potential energy of an object depends on its weight and how far it
moves vertically.
Change in G.P .E (E) = mass (m) x gravitational filed strength (g) x change in height (h)

Kinetic energy
The kinetic energy of a moving object depends on its…

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Current electricity
Electrical charges
Certain insulating materials become charged when rubbed together.
Electrons are transferred when objects become charged.
Like charges repel; unlike charges attract.

Electric circuits
Every component has its own agreed symbol.
current (I ) = charge (Q)
time (t)

work done (W ) energy transferred (E)…

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Mains electricity
Alternating current
Direct current is in one direction only. Alternating current repeatedly reverses its
The peak voltage of an alternating potential difference is the maximum voltage
measured from zero volts.
A mains circuit has a live wire that is alternately positive and negative every cycle and

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Electrical issues
Electrical faults are dangerous because they can cause electric shocks and fires.
Never touch a mains appliance (or plug or socket) with wet hands. Never touch a bare
wire or a terminal at a potential of more than 30V.
Check cables, plugs and sockets for damage regularly.


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The activity of a radioactive source is the number of nuclei that decay per second.
The number of atoms of a radioactive isotope and the activity both decrease by half
every half-life.

Radioactivity at work
The use we can make of a radioactive isotope depends on its half-life, and the…

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The life history of a star
A protostar is a gas and dust cloud in space that can go on to form a star.
Low mass star: protostar main sequence star red giant white drawf black
High mass star: protostar main sequence star red supergiant supernova
black hole if…


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