Physics GCSE revision P2

My notes for Physics GCSE that I used last year

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P2
Equal and Opposite forces
Whet w objects interact, they exert equal and opposite forces. The unit of force is the Newton (N)
Newton's first Law
When the force on an object are balanced-equal in size but opposite in direction, the object is either:
stationary or,
Moving at a constant velocity
We say that the resultant force on an object is zero.
Example: a glider on a linear track moves at a constant velocity so the resultant force =zero
Example ­Friction
A car move forward due to friction between the ground and the tyre
When the car moves forward: the friction of the ground on the tyre is in the forward direction
The friction of the tyre on the ground is in the reverse direction
This means the two forces are equal and opposite on each other
Unbalanced forces
An object will accelerate or decelerate depending on what the motion was previously
It will accelerate if it was previously stationary
This can be very useful e.g.
However it can also be bad, e.g. quicksand victim-gravity has larger force than the upwards force of
the sand so victim sinks
Newton's Second Law
Resultant force, mass and acceleration are linked by the equation F=ma
Speeding up or Slowing down
If the velocity of an object changes it must be acted on by a resultant force. Its acceleration is always
in the same direction as the resultant force

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The velocity of an object increases if the resultant force of an object is in the same direction as the
velocity
The velocity of an object decreases if the resultant force is in the opposite direction of the velocity
Examples: When a jet plane takes off, the thrust force of the engine is greater than the tyre
resistance
The resultant force is the difference between the two forces
When a car driver applies the brakes, the braking force is the resultant force of the car…read more

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Static Electricity
Inside an atom
-Nucleus containing protons and neutrons surrounded by electrons in energy levels/shells
-Proton has a positive charge
-Neutron has no charge
-An electron has a negative charge
-Electrons can be transferred from or to an atom
1. Adding electrons to an uncharged atom makes it negative
2. Removing electrons from an uncharged atom makes it positive
Attraction and Repulsion
-Like charges repel.…read more

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Charging a conductor
-A conductor can only hold charge if it is insulated/isolated from the ground. If it isn't insulated the
electrons will transfer to Earth
-To charge an insulated conductor it needs to contact a charged object
-If the object is positively charged, electrons transfer from the conductor to the object. So the
conductor becomes positive.
If the object is negatively charged, electrons are transferred to the conductor from the object. So the
conductor becomes negatively charged.…read more

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