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Speed = how fast an object is moving.
Distance-time graphs represent the speed of an object.
Velocity = the speed and direction of an object.
Speed (m/s) = Distance travelled (m)
Time taken (s)
The acceleration or deceleration of an object is the rate at which its velocity changes.
Velocity-time graphs represent the acceleration of an object.
Acceleration (m/s2) = Change in velocity (m/s)
(or deceleration) Time taken for change (s)
Forces = pushes or pulls that affect the movement of an object.
Resultant force = the sum of all the forces that act on an object.
Equal and opposite forces are balanced. Balanced forces keep the movement of an object constant.
Unequal and opposite forces are unbalanced. Unbalanced forces change the movement of an object.
Terminal velocity is a steady falling speed, i.e. gravity and air resistance are equal.
Stopping distance = thinking distance + braking distance. Stopping distance can be affected by speed, weather
conditions and external factors affecting the driver of the car.
Kinetic energy = the energy an object has because of its movement. It depends on the mass and speed of the
Kinetic energy (J) = ½ x Mass (kg) x Speed2(m/s2)
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Momentum = a measure of the state of motion of an object. It depends on the mass and velocity of the object.
Momentum has both magnitude and direction.
In a collision or explosion, momentum is conserved providing no external forces act.
Static electricity is created when two insulating materials are rubbed against each other.
Material minus electrons = positively charged.
Material plus electrons = negatively charged.
Like charges repel. Different charges attract.…read more
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Atomic number = number of protons. Mass number = number of protons and neutrons.
Background radiation is not harmful.
Ions are charged particles caused by electrons being knocked out of atoms.
Alpha and beta radiation is ionising radiation.
Nuclear Fission and Fusion:
Nuclear fusion = joining of atomic nuclei.
Nuclear fission = Splitting of atomic nuclei.…read more