First 262 words of the document:
Physical and human factors that influence the vulnerability of cold environments
Continuous permafrost- restricts drainage which increases surface run off
and solifluction. Reduced drainage increase waterlogged soil (gleyed soil)
which is nutrient deficient.
Low precipitation- (125-375mm) cold desert and little plant growth or
Frost heave/solifluction- reduce amount of plants that can grow as roots
are disturbed- disruption of ecosystem
Shot food chains- lots of animals rely on one thing, few primary producers,
reducing amount of food available to primary and secondary consumers like
Oil spills- have a long lasting effect on the environment (30 years) making
it an unsustainable resource to exploit.
Oil pipelines disrupt migration patterns of caribou herds.
Seismic exploration- disturbs animals on the tundra and near shore water of
the Arctic ocean
Gravel extraction- from river beds has damaging effects on fish
populations and aquatic environments. The gravel is used for construction of
roads and as an insulating layer to stop permafrost from melting.
No sanitary land area- sewage pollutes surrounding area due to increasing
urbanisation of area (7,500 workers). The increased building generates
heat that melts the permafrost and creates thermokarst landscapes. No
sewage system as sewage is slow to decompose and can freeze in pipes.
Landfill from household waste- attracts more animals and predators which
disrupts the food chain (animals further down the food chain reduce in
numbers due to more predators)