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Energy from the Nucleus
The law of conservation of energy states that "energy cannot be created nor destroyed, but
may be changed from one form to another"

E = mc2

E = Energy (J)
m = Mass (kg)
c = Speed of light (m/s)

When using the above equation,…

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(N) are the same. After Z=20 the stable nuclei contain more neutrons than protons. The
difference between them becomes greater as Z increases.

This graph shows how N and Z vary. Isotopes
that decay by beta emission do so because they
contain too many neutrons, as a new neutron

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This binding energy is the energy that would be necessary to split the nucleus into its
constituent protons and neutrons.

Binding Energy per Nucleon (BEPN)
The binding energy per nucleon of an element is the energy required to overcome the
electrostatic forces needed to form that element to allow the…

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go on to produce more fission, causing a chain reaction. The change in mass or binding
energy can be used to work out the energy released from nuclear fission.

The Pressurised Water Reactor

The key features of this reactor are:

Strong containment vessel made of 20cm thick steel, surrounded by…

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moderating material. Carbon was used in early reactors, however water is now used in
Pressurised Water Reactors.

Absorption Cross Section
The chance of a neutron being absorbed depends on the absorption cross section. Two solid
objects, such as billiard balls, will collide provided that the centre of each ball falls…

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Energy from Nuclear Fusion
The energy that we receive on Earth from the Sun and stars comes from nuclear fusion

Fusion in the sun

The principle process by which energy is generated in the Sun is a cycle called the Hydrogen
Cycle. It involves the fusion of hydrogen nuclei.…

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Why is it difficult to achieve?
One promising fusion reaction appears to be fusing of deuterons (nuclei of hydrogen-2).
There is an abundance of this fuel on Earth. The problem is that the nuclei both carry a
positive charge. In order to fuse they have to get close enough for…

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reaction raise the temperature of the plasma and the lithium blanket. Energy could be
extracted by pumping a coolant through the lithium blanket and then producing electricity as

What's the Risk?
Risk is the probability of harm being caused by an activity. An activity could be harmful to the…

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Low level waste can be stored in metal drums and buried in large trenches




Hi tom

im currently doin A2 physics! Im hoping to maintain my B grade as i dont think ill be able to improve. any tips

also how well did u do on your a-levels and wat are u doin now if its not too personal

Paul Davis


******* amazing notes mate and viren lad, good luck in your exams

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