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Photosynthesis
The leaf is the main photosynthetic structure. The chloroplasts are the cellular organelles within
the leaf where photosynthesis takes place.

Structure of the leaf

Leaves are adapted to bring together the three raw materials of
photosynthesis (water, carbon dioxide and light) and remove its
products (oxygen and glucose). These…

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2. The light-dependent reaction , in which light energy is converted into chemical energy
3. The light-independent reaction , in which protons (hydrogen ions) from the LDR are used to
reduce carbon dioxide to produce sugars and other organic molecules

The light-dependent reaction
The LDR of photosynthesis involves the capture…

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photolysis of water is either used up in respiration or diffuses out of the leaf as a waste product of
photosynthesis.

The light-independent reaction
The products of the LDR (namely ATP and NADPH) are used to reduce carbon dioxide in the
second stage of photosynthesis. Unlike the first stage, this…

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Factors affecting photosynthesis
In a complex process such as photosynthesis, the factors that affect it all operate together.
However, the rate of photosynthesis at any given moment is not affected by all the factors, but
rather by the one whose level is at the least favourable value. This is the…

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