Phobias

Answers to potential exam questions. Includes clincial characteristics, issues with diagnosis, biological explanations, psychological (behavioural and psychodynamic) explanations, biological therapies and some psychological therapies. 

fairly boring layout but covers most info. evaluation is italic :3

**I intend to add more psychological therapies and the cognitive explanation soon :)

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  • Created by: Beth
  • Created on: 13-01-13 19:52
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Phobias!

3 main types of phobias:

1.Speci
fi
c phobi
a (
fear
of
a
parti
cul
ar obj
ect
/si
tuat
ion)

2.Soci
al
phobia
(f
ear
of
social
/publ
ic
gather
ings)

3.Agor
ap hobi
a (
fear
when away f
rom home)

Outline clinical characteristics of phobic…

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generalised anxiety disorders, and also with depression i.e. people were often diagnosed with
more than one of these disorders. This questions the validity of different kinds of phobias as
a separate disorder.

This is further supported by research by Eysenck. Up to 66% of patients with one anxiety
disorder are…

Page 3

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Addi
ti
on al
t
heories
concern
do pamine
pathw ays
in
the
b r
ain
that
predi
spose some
peo pl
e t
o
be
mo re
readil
y condi
ti
oned so
they ar
e l
ikel
y t
o acquir
e phobias
mo r
e
easil
y,…

Page 4

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Exper
ienci
ng anxi
ety
after
an event
has happened
w oul
d not
be an
adap t
ive
response
t
heref
ore
animals
h ave
evolved a
response t
o pot
enti
al
threat
s.
This
is
call
ed pr
epotency
an d
r
efer
s t
o t…

Page 5

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noisily thrashing about, so perhaps his phobia could be better explained in terms of classical
conditioning.

The
b ehavi
oural
approach t
o phobia
acquisi
ti
on would
explai
n Hans'
phobia
in
those
terms.

The
h or
se (neut
ral
sti
mu l
us)
became associ
ated
w i…

Page 6

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BZ's have been shown to be effective. For example Kahn et al 1986 found that BZ's were
better than just using a placebo treatment, which suggests they have some pharmacological
value. Hildago et al 2001 found that BZ's had better results than SSRI's.

Bet
a
blocker
s (BB's)
reduce
a…

Page 7

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Therefore, not all drug treatments have the same limitation although it is probably desirable to
administer them alongside some psychological treatment.

An al
ter
n at
ive
biol
o gi
cal
me t
hod f
or t
he t
reatmen t
of
phobi
as i
s psychosurger
y.
S ur…

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There are some limitations with SD. First of all symptom substitution may be a problem. Just
because a certain person stops feeling afraid of an object doesn't mean that their underlying
problem has disappeared. A further issue is that the SD may not work as well with prepared
fears i.e.…

Page 9

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evidence that it is effective in the treatment of phobias. Unlike other treatment however, it
does not attempt to divert thought processes nor form new associations, it attempts to
eradicate the fear permanently.

Comments

MrsMacLean

a great essay that reads well. The A02 is really good. Thanks  

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