Philosophy 1

All the important notes that you need to know for the Philosophy exam 

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Philosophy 1
Beliefs About Deity
Nature of God
Beliefs about Nature of God:
o Anthropomorphic ­ neither human nor animal
o Omnipotent ­ all powerful
o Omniscient ­ all knowing
o Omnibenevolent ­ all loving
o Omnipresent ­ present everywhere at the same time
o Transcendent ­ above all
o Immanent ­ within all
o Eternal and exists outside time and space
o He will judge everyone
o He created the universe for a reason
o Can only be seen in a spiritual way
o Has no form or shape
o Trinity teaching mainly found in the Apostles' Creed
o Father ­ the transcendent creator
o Son ­ human form ( Jesus )
o Holy spirit ­ soul ( immanent but impersonal )
Belief in God
Reasons Given in Support of Belief:
o Ontological argument
Introduced by Anselm of Canterbury in 11th Century
God is greatest being imaginable and must exist for us to describe him in this way
o Cosmological argument
Introduced by Thomas Aquinas
Something cannot come from nothing
Universe must have been created by something powerful
Only thing powerful enough is God so He must exist
Big Bang was God creating universe
o Teleological argument
Introduced by William Paley
Produced an argument about a Divine Watchmaker
Fact that a watch is so complicated means it couldn't come into existence by chance
World is so complicated it must have been created by someone or something
o Experience argument
Can experience God through miracles or prayers
May have felt His presence or heard him speak so He must exist
o Moral argument
People have a basic understanding of bad, good, right and wrong
This knowledge was given to us by God
o Background and upbringing
People may have been brought up as a Christian
Miracles
Concept of Miracles:
o Miracle ­ an event that cannot be explained by science or any human activity
o Demonstrate God's omnipotence and power over science and nature
o Also show His love for his people
o Stories from Bible demonstrate awesome power of God over nature
o Old Testament
Moses asked God to part the waves of the Red Sea
Giant hailstones from Heaven killed many Amorites
o New Testament
Jesus fed 5000 people with 2 fish and 5 loaves of bread
Jesus turned water into wine

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Jesus brought Lazarus back from the dead
Resurrection of Jesus after he was crucified
o Lourdes
Important pilgrimage site for Christians especially Catholics
Virgin Mary appeared to young peasant girl ( Saint Bernadette ) in grotto in 1858
A fountain appeared that is said to have healing properties
5 million pilgrims visit a year in hopes for a cure
Many people are said to have recovered from serious illnesses after visiting Lourdes
Beliefs About Deity ­ Key Words
Apostles Creed An early statement of Christian…read more

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Day of Judgement where body will be resurrected
o Soul doesn't exist :
If the soul is nonphysical , where is it?
If it exists , why haven't we found it?
Can't see it , so how do we know it's there?
Evil people exist
o Soul does exist :
Soul guides us and tries to please God
Jesus resurrected , and that is only possible if the soul does exist
Reference in gospels
Evidence in Bible
Life After Death
Concept of Life After Death:…read more

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It is your life and actions on Earth that determine how you are judged and where you spend eternity in the
afterlife
o This has an impact on the behaviour of many Christians as they live their lives always aware of the consequences
of the afterlife
o They try to lead their lives according to God in order to attain their desired outcome
o Encourages many people to live morally , according to the laws of God
Funeral Rites
Funeral Rites:
o They are customs…read more

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