Perspectives on Ideology, according to Andrew Heywood

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Perspectives According to Andrew Heywood
Conservatism Liberalism Socialism Anarchism
Ideology Manifestation of the arrogance of Officially sanctioned belief system that claims Body of ideas that conceal the
rationalism. Establish principles and a monopoly of truth and is inherently contradictions of a classless society,
goals that lead to repression repressive promoting false consciousness and political
Freedom Traditional: willing recognition of duties Classical: negative freedom, absence of Traditional: Refers to self-fulfilment Absolute value, irreconcilable with any
and responsibilities (negative) constraints achieved through free creative labour or form of political authority. Achievemen
New Right: Negative freedom in Modern: positive freedom in the sense of cooperative social interaction of personal autonomy, not merely bein
economic sphere, freedom of choice in personal development and human flourishing Social democrats: realisation of individual `left alone' but being rationally
the market place potential self-willed and self-directed
Democracy Liberal-democratic rule, qualifications Individualist terms as consent expressed Traditional: Form of radical democracy Endorses direct democracy and calls fo
about need to protect property and though the ballot box, democracy equated based on popular participation and desire continuous popular participation and
traditional institutions with regular and competitive elections to bring economic life under public control radical decentralisation. Electoral
New Right: link electoral democracy to Must be conducted within constitutional Social democrats: firmly committed to democracy = façade that conceals elite
problem of over-government and framework liberal-democratic structures domination and reconcile the masses to
economic stagnation their oppression
Human Nature Essentially limited and security-seeking Set of innate qualities intrinsic to the Humans essentially social creatures, Highly optimistic. Humans either seen t
creatures drawn to the known. Human individual, placing little emphasis on nurture over nature. have powerful inclination towards
rationality is unreliable and moral social/historical conditioning. Self-seeking, sociable, gregarious and cooperative
corruption is implicit in each person largely self-reliant, also governed by reason behaviour, being capable of maintainin
New Right: Embraces a form of and capable of personal development e.g. order through collective effort alone
self-seeking individualism education
Society Living organism. Society has an existence Collection of individuals, society fashioned out Unequal class power, economic and Society characterised by unregulated
outside the individual and is held of voluntary and contractual agreements property divisions being deeper and more and natural harmony, based on natural
together by the bonds of tradition, made by self-interested human beings. There genine than broader social bonds. human disposition towards cooperation
authority and a common morality is a general balance of interests in society Marxists: society characterised by class and sociability. Social conflict and
New Right: Subscribed to a form of liberal that promote harmony and equilibrium struggle and argue only stable and disharmony unnatural, a product of
atomism cohesive society is a classless one political rule and economic inequality
Equality Society natural hierarchy, dismissed People are born equal, of equal moral worth. Fundamental value, endorses social Particular stress on political equality,
equality as abstract and unachievable. Implies formal equality, notable legal and equality. Despite shift within social understood as an equal and absolute
New Right: Strongly individualist belief political equality, as well as equality of democracy towards a liberal belief in right to personal autonomy, implying
in equality of opportunity while opportunity, but social equality is likely to equality of opportunity, social equality, that all forms of political inequality
emphasising the economic benefits of threaten freedom and penalise talent whether in its relative (social democratic) amount to oppression
material inequality Classical liberals: emphasise need for strict or absolute (communist) sense, essential Anarcho-communists ­ absolute social
meritocracy and economic incentives to ensuring social cohesion and fraternity, equality achieved through the
Modern liberals: Genuine equal opportunities establishing justice of equality, and collective ownership of productive
require relative social equality enlarging freedom in a positive sense wealth

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Economy Private enterprise but have traditionally Economy as vital part of society and have a Marxism: expressed a preference for Reject any form of economic control or
favoured pragmatic if limited strong preference for a market or capitalist common ownership and absolute social management
intervention, laissez-faire risks social economic order.…read more

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Culture Emphasises its benefits in terms of Critical of traditional or `popular' culture, Part of ideological and political
strengthening social cohesion and seeing it as a source of conformism and a `superstructure' that is conditioned by the
political unity. Overlaps with tradition violation of individuality. `High' culture, such economic `base'. Culture is a reflection of
and binds one generation to the next.…read more


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