Personality Revision Booklet full of studies to remember!

Personality Revision Booklet full of studies to remember!

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  • Created on: 11-04-12 07:46
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Development of Personality
Personality ­ the thoughts, feelings and behaviours that
make an individual unique
Temperament ­ the genetic component of personality
Extroversion ­ a personality type that describes
someone who look to the outside world for
Introversion ­ a personality type that describes someone
who is content in their own company
Neuroticism ­ a personality type that describes someone
who is highly emotional, with an intense reaction to fear

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Psychoticism ­ a personality type that describes
someone who is aggressive, insensitive and cruel. Most
people score low on this scale
Studies of Temperament
Thomas, Chess and Birch (1977)
Aim: to investigate whether responses to the environment
remain stable throughout life
Method: 133 children were studied from infancy to early
adulthood. The children were observed and their parents were
interviewed. Parents were asked about the child's routine and
reaction to change.
Results: Children were classified as either `easy', `difficult' or
`slow to warm up'.…read more

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Studies of Temperament
Buss and Plomin (1984)
Aim: To investigate whether temperament is genetic
Method: 228 pairs of monozygotic twins and 172 pairs of
dizygotic twins were rated at age 5 on their emotionality, activity
and sociability.
Results: The scores of the monozygotic twin pairs were more
closely correlated than the scores of the dizygotic twin pairs.
Conclusion: The genetically identical twins were closer in their
temperaments, suggesting that temperament is genetic.…read more

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Studies of Temperament
Kagan and Snidman (1991)
Aim: to investigate whether temperament is innate
Method: The reactions of four month old babies to a stranger
were observed. The babies were settled in a chair by a carer,
then the stranger appeared and showed them a toy.
The participants were followed up eleven years later.
Results: 20% of the children were classified as `high reactive'
and cried and flapped their arms, 40% were seen as `low
reactive' showing little movement or emotion to the stranger.…read more

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Eysenck's Type Theory of Personality
Eysenck believed that there are different personality types and
that there are characteristics relating to each type.
Eysenck's main personality types are introversion and
extroversion, and neuroticism.
Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI)
This test uses yes/no questions to score people on two scales
from extrovert to introvert and from neurotic to stable.
Eysenck Personality Quotient (EPQ)
This updated scale introduced a third dimension called
psychoticism alongside neuroticism and extroversion.…read more

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Antisocial Personality Disorder
APD ­ a condition where the individual does not follow social
rules or consider the rights of others.
Diagnosis from age 18 although behaviour will have been seen
from 15 years old.…read more

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Research Into Causes of APD
Biological Causes
The Amygdala
The amygdala is part of the brain linked to emotion. The
amygdala responds to the negative responses that we get from
our actions. This means that we learn to avoid actions that cause
fear or distress. If the amygdala is affected in people with APD
then they will not be affected by distress in other people.
The prefrontal cortex is also associated with emotional
processing and is where moral and social decisions are made.…read more

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Research Into Causes of APD
Situational Causes
Farrington (1995)
Aim: To investigate the development of antisocial
Method: A longitudinal study followed 411 males from
age 8 to 50. All lived in a deprived area of London.
Parents and teachers were interviewed and criminal
records checks carried out on the men and their
Results: 41% of the males were convicted of at least one
criminal offence. The main risk factors were criminal
behaviour in the family, low school achievement and
poor parenting.…read more

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Research Into Causes of APD
Situational Causes
Elander (2000)
Aim: To investigate childhood risk factors that predict
antisocial behaviour in adults
Method: 225 twins with childhood disorders were
investigated and interviewed 10-25 years later
Results: It was found that hyperactivity, behaviour
disorders, low IQ and poor reading ability in childhood
were strong predictors of APD in later life.
Conclusion: Disruptive children with poor academic skills
are at increased risk of APD in adulthood.…read more



A 'one stop shop' for all of the key studies relating to Personality.


thankyou so much this is all i needed a great upload

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