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Development of Personality

Personality ­ the thoughts, feelings and behaviours that
make an individual unique

Temperament ­ the genetic component of personality

Extroversion ­ a personality type that describes
someone who look to the outside world for

Introversion ­ a personality type that describes someone
who is content…

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Psychoticism ­ a personality type that describes
someone who is aggressive, insensitive and cruel. Most
people score low on this scale

Studies of Temperament
Thomas, Chess and Birch (1977)
Aim: to investigate whether responses to the environment
remain stable throughout life

Method: 133 children were studied from infancy to early…

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Studies of Temperament
Buss and Plomin (1984)
Aim: To investigate whether temperament is genetic

Method: 228 pairs of monozygotic twins and 172 pairs of
dizygotic twins were rated at age 5 on their emotionality, activity
and sociability.

Results: The scores of the monozygotic twin pairs were more
closely correlated than…

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Studies of Temperament
Kagan and Snidman (1991)
Aim: to investigate whether temperament is innate

Method: The reactions of four month old babies to a stranger
were observed. The babies were settled in a chair by a carer,
then the stranger appeared and showed them a toy.

The participants were followed…

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Eysenck's Type Theory of Personality
Eysenck believed that there are different personality types and
that there are characteristics relating to each type.

Eysenck's main personality types are introversion and
extroversion, and neuroticism.

Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI)

This test uses yes/no questions to score people on two scales
from extrovert to…

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Antisocial Personality Disorder
APD ­ a condition where the individual does not follow social
rules or consider the rights of others.

Diagnosis from age 18 although behaviour will have been seen
from 15 years old.

Does not follow laws of society
Deceitful, lying, using false names
Impulsive, does not plan…

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Research Into Causes of APD
Biological Causes
The Amygdala
The amygdala is part of the brain linked to emotion. The
amygdala responds to the negative responses that we get from
our actions. This means that we learn to avoid actions that cause
fear or distress. If the amygdala is affected…

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Research Into Causes of APD
Situational Causes
Farrington (1995)
Aim: To investigate the development of antisocial
Method: A longitudinal study followed 411 males from
age 8 to 50. All lived in a deprived area of London.
Parents and teachers were interviewed and criminal
records checks carried out on the…

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Research Into Causes of APD
Situational Causes
Elander (2000)
Aim: To investigate childhood risk factors that predict
antisocial behaviour in adults
Method: 225 twins with childhood disorders were
investigated and interviewed 10-25 years later
Results: It was found that hyperactivity, behaviour
disorders, low IQ and poor reading ability in childhood…




A 'one stop shop' for all of the key studies relating to Personality.



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